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Cosmic Baryons: The IGM

Cosmic Baryons: The IGM. Ue-Li Pen 彭威禮. Overview. History of Cosmic Baryons: a gas with phase transitions Missing baryons simulations SZ-Power spectrum: direct probe of baryons Prospects for detection. Cosmic Gas.

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Cosmic Baryons: The IGM

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  1. Cosmic Baryons: The IGM Ue-Li Pen 彭威禮

  2. Overview • History of Cosmic Baryons: a gas with phase transitions • Missing baryons • simulations • SZ-Power spectrum: direct probe of baryons • Prospects for detection

  3. Cosmic Gas • Today, 25% of matter is baryons (ordinary matter), the rest is dark matter (interacts through gravity only). C.f. dark energy. • Thermal state today very poorly known. Probably in warm/hot/diffuse state, filling most of the universe. Only a small fraction in stars, cold (obervable) gas (Fukogita et al 1999). “Missing Baryons” • T range 104-109 K

  4. Cosmological Context • Critical for understanding global cosmology processes: galaxy formation, cluster formation. • Impacts precision measurement of cosmology: dark energy, dark matter, lensing. • Major efforts underway to map cosmic distribution using SZ (Compton scattering of CMB)

  5. In the beginning • Hot big bang: above z>1000, T>3000K. Baryons well understood: linear waves in photon-baryon plasma. • Recombination: phase transition to neutral: well understood. • Dark Ages(10<z<1000): non-linear passive evolution: well understood. • Reionization (6<z<20): phase transition • Epoch of Galaxy formation 2<z<6: Lya forest: modestly understood • Present: z<2: poorly understood

  6. WMAP 3yr Baryons at recombination: T=3000K, n=102/cm3

  7. Reionization • T:10K--10000K • 21cm @z=6-15 Iliev, Mellema, Pen 2005. 1o FOV

  8. Present day IGM: 3,000,000K (simulation)

  9. Where are the missing baryons? • The present day baryons remain undetected. But are not the dark matter • IGM: what is the state/density • Compact objects: Brown/white/other dwarfs. Formed at high-z. Where does gas in clusters come from? • Fukogita et al (1998) speculated baryons to live in poor groups. Violates XRB (Pen 1999).

  10. IGM conundrum • Gas falls into gravitational wells. Why haven’t we seen it? • <kT>=0.3 keV from cosmic virialization: easily visible by ROSAT extragalactic XRB • Brightness depends on clumping C=ξ(0)<60 • PS prediction: C>200. Need to expel 70% of gas. • Simulations: C>>100 (Pen 1999, Dave et al 2001, Kang&Ryu 2003)

  11. Cosmic Fluid Constraint • If gas follows dark matter (adiabatic evolution), Press-Schechter theory describes dynamics: all matter in gravitationally bound, hydrostatic halos • Missing effects: heating/cooling • Cooling: form stars, denser/colder gas, more easily observed. Calculable. • Heating: expel gas from dark matter halos, harder to observe. Unpredictable.

  12. Zhang, Pen & Trac 2004

  13. Gas traces DM too well, inconsistent with XRB data 10243 grid XRB limit Zhang, Pen and Trac 2004.

  14. Hiding Baryons • Heat and eject: ΔE of 1 keV, maybe less if SN are intergalactic (entropy). • Cool and hide: cooling catastrophe • Problem with simulations? Data interpretation (XRB shadowing)? • How can we find them and show that we found them? How does that affect SZ clusters?

  15. IGM balance • Heating: hydrostatic equilibrium vs free expansion • Gravitational potential determined by dark matter, only weakly affected by baryons • Heating scenarios: 1. halo centers 2. uniform

  16. Central Heating • Initial halo state: isothermal halo, strong entropy stratification • Add heat adiabatically at center, due to winds from SNe, BH outflows, etc. (HII regions are not energetic enough) • Raise central entropy adiabatically at convective stability limit • Final state: central isentropic “core”, isothermal stratified envelope

  17. Hydrostatic Solution Halo Mass. Given vc (observable) Virial radius Isothermal profile Post heating core profile Core radius From Pen (1999, ApJ 510 L1)

  18. IGM dilemma • Cosmic virial temperature is 3,000,000K • 1 keV is uncomfortably hot (107 K) for SNe and feedback scenarios. • What about warm (105-106K) phase? Difficult to understand in Press-Schechter picture: hydrostatic equilibrium results in high density, rapid cooling. Warm phase may be numerical artifact.

  19. Hunting Baryons • Baryons (electrons) interact with light (Thomson scattering): SZ & KSZ against CMB. • KSZ is photon Doppler shift from bulk velocity. • TSZ is Compton y =τkT/(m c2) ~ 10-3 • SZ is redshift independent! Where are the baryons?

  20. Simulated Universe in tSZ

  21. Power spectrum of baryons: thermal and kinetic Zhang, Pen & Trac 2004

  22. Redshift resolution • Equation of state of gas: how hot/dense is the IGM? • Hotter means smoother, less correlated than galaxies • Cross-correlation with photo-z crucial to quantify results

  23. Zhang & Pen 2001

  24. Prospects • New experiments: SPT, SZA, ACT will map SZ and KSZ for large areas of sky, measuring baryon inventory

  25. Conclusions • Baryons poorly understood today. Heating/cooling probably important. • Adiabatic prediction is Evirial = 0.3 keV, inconsistent with observations (groups, XRB) • Feedback requires a lot of energy (>Evirial). 1 keV consistent with XRB, LTR (group properties). • Debate on temperature (warm?), pressure equilibrium, simulations. • SZ a promising physical probe of baryon distribution. This needs to be understood for precision measurement of cosmological parameters, galaxy and cluster formation.

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