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Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development

Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development

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Chapter 13 Social Cognition and Moral Development

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  1. Chapter 13Social Cognition and Moral Development

  2. Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development • Social cognition: ability to understand psychological differences in others • Adopt other’s perspectives • Theory of Mind: False Belief Task • Where will Sally look for marble when she returns? (See next slide) • Used to predict and explain human behavior before 4 yrs of age • “he wanted to. . .” “he intended to. .”

  3. Figure 13.1

  4. Developing a Theory of Mind • Attentive parents • Joint attention • Pretend play • Imitation • Social experiences • Talking about mental states • Sensitivity to feelings of others

  5. Nature and Nurture • Nature: Theory of mind proved adaptive • Functioning in a social group • Gain resources and survive • Bargaining, conflict resolution, cooperation • Nurture: Acquiring language and interaction • Having siblings, sensitive parents • Using mental states to explain behavior • “How do you think she felt?”

  6. Person Perception • Psychological traits observed • Used to explain behavior • By about age 7 or 8 • Understanding personality • Through adolescence • Used to evaluate others

  7. Role-Taking Skills • The ability to adopt another’s perspective • Moving away from egocentrism • Essential in thinking about moral issues • Beginning of empathy – about age 2 • 3-6 yr olds – egocentric • 12+ - multiple perspectives • Socially isolated older adults decline related to processing speed

  8. Perspectives on Moral Development • Three components of morality • 1) Cognitive: Distinguish right from wrong • 2) Behavioral: Act accordingly (Prosocial) • 3) Affective: Feel pride and guilt or shame • Empathy: a vicarious experience • Most are motivated to avoid negative emotions

  9. Psychoanalytic Theory • Superego: conscience • Oedipus Complex • Internalization of parental morals • Emotion important in morality • Responsive parenting important • Gender differences unsupported

  10. Cognitive-Developmental Theory • Piaget’s views • Premoral Period: not moral beings • Heteronomous Morality: ages 6-10 • Believe in rules from parents • Consequences/amount of damage • Autonomous: at ages10-11 • Rules are agreements – not absolutes • Intention more important than consequences

  11. Kohlberg: Reasoning about Moral Dilemmas • Preconventional: egocentric • Punishment and obedience • Instrumental hedonism • Conventional: consideration of others • Good boy/girl morality • Authority/social order maintaining • Postconventional: consideration of all • Morality of contract • Individual principles of conscience

  12. Social Learning Theory • Moral Behavior (Bandura) • Cognitive self-regulation • Anticipation, apply consequences to self • Moral disengagement • No self condemnation for immoral acts • Situational context important

  13. Early Moral Training • Children internalize moral standards • By 18-24 mo. learn through experiences to: • 1) Associate negative emotions with violating rules • Positive relationship w/parent important • 2) Exert self-control when tempted • Prosocial behavior by age 2 (and earlier) • Punishment must always be accompanied by an explanation

  14. Intentions and Rules: Research • Piaget: consequences vs. intentions • Nelson: 3 yr. olds can judge intention • Theory of mind: “I didn’t mean it!” • Piaget: questioning rules • Turiel: moral rules by age 2 1/2 • Adult rules often questioned

  15. Raising Moral Children • Social Learning Theory • R+ moral behavior • Punish immoral behavior • Model moral behavior • Hoffman: Three Approaches to Discipline • Love withdrawal: negative effects • Power assertion: moral immaturity • Induction: related to moral maturity

  16. Temperament and Moral Development • Fearful, inhibited children • Become more fearful when reprimanded • Use gentle discipline • Fearless, uninhibited children • Relationship with parent important • “Goodness of fit” • What works for one child may not for another

  17. The Adolescent • Changes in moral reasoning • Shift to conventional reasoning • Identity includes moral and values • Two kinds of antisocial youth • 1) Temporary in adolescence • 2) Chronic/seriously aggressive • Less empathy for distress of others • Little remorse for criminal behavior

  18. Dodge’s Social Information-Processing Model • Individual’s reaction to frustration, anger • Not simply social cues • Deficient information processing • For most, accuracy improves with age • Aggressive kids show a bias toward attributing hostile intent/motive • Also choose aggressive response • Rejection, abuse in upbringing

  19. Patterson’s Coercive Family Environments • Ineffective parenting in childhood • Family members in power struggle • Try to control each other coercively • Threatening, hitting, even abuse • Unpleasant aggressive child • Performs poorly in school • Disliked by other children • Chooses aggressive peer group

  20. Nature-Nurture • Inherit predisposition for aggression • Behavior evokes coercive parenting • Parenting strengthens aggression • Less opportunity to learn emotional control • Exposure to violence in society • Lower SES: violence to solve problems • Both bullies and victims of bullies more likely to behave violently

  21. The Adult • Postconventional reasoning is possible • Stable through about age 75 • Important moral lessons learned in life • Spirituality: search for meaning in life • Evident among reflective adults • Religion: Little change even in old age

  22. Advanced Moral Reasoning • Necessary cognitive skills • Perspective-taking • Formal operations • Social learning experiences • Interactions with parents • Discussions with peers • Higher education • Democracy

  23. Kohlberg in Perspective • Sequence supported • Devalued parental influence not supported • Emphasis on peer contributions supported • Cultural bias • Liberal bias • Gender bias not supported