Vietnam War 1954-1975
North VietnamSouth VietnamHanoiGulf of TonkinLaosCambodiaThailandChinaBurmaSouth China Sea
Reading on Background of Vietnam • Practice Close Reading • Highlight information that you feel is important • In the margins, briefly explain why you highlighted the information • Be ready to discuss
French Control • French control Indochina – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia from 1893-1941 (Age of Imperialism) • Japan takes over Indochina during WWII • Japan leaves Indochina in 1945 • French want control again: WHY?
The French are back • After WWII France assumes they will get their colonies back • 1946 France sends troops into Vietnam and gain control of southern half • 1950 US enters Vietnam struggle and sends aid to France-WHY?
Primary Source: Vietnamese Account of Mistreatment at the hands of French Colonial Officials, 1914 • Using historical thinking skills of Contextualization and Close Reading
Ho Chi Minh • 1930 became leader of the Indochinese Communist Party • During WWII was in Russia and China • 1945 Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam and independent state • Asked Truman to honor Atlantic Charter • Read Aloud: Call for the Revolutionary League for the Independence of Vietnam (1941)
Vietminh • Group that wants Vietnam’s independence • Formed in the North under Ho Chi Minh
Domino Theory (Read aloud • US fears if one country falls to communism after WWII it will be a domino effect • One country, then the next and so on • 1954 Pres Eisenhower explains this theory on tv • 1954 French begin to pull out of Vietnam after a defeat by the Vietminh • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP9QDRDLw6c
Geneva Accords • May – July 1954 • France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, China, Cambodia, Laos and the Vietminh • Met in Geneva Switzerland • Divide Vietnam at 17th Parallel • North Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh – Hanoi • South Vietnam – Ngo Dinh Diem – Saigon • Elections to reunite in 1956
No Elections • Everyone realizes the communists will win the elections • Therefore the elections aren’t held and the country remains divided • Kennedy sends in military “advisors” to South Vietnam 16,000 (Early 1960’s)
Buddhist protests • Diem is Catholic and limits rights of Buddhists • Most of the South believes in Buddhism • Buddhist monks burn themselves in protest 1963 in the streets of Saigon • Diem has hundreds arrested and Buddhist temples destroyed
President Kennedy Inaugural Speech : “The Torch Is Passed” What is the message behind this address? What is going to be the mission of the JFK administration? How does this set the tone for 1960s and Vietnam?
Kennedy’s View on Vietnam • Press Conference • Statement • What is the tone of Kennedy’s voice as questioned about Vietnam? • Primary Source: One solider sister’s letter to the president..early 1963.
US can no longer support Diem • November 1, 1963 • US supports a coup • Overthrow Diem • Diem is executed against Pres Kennedy’s wishes
Reading from textbook • Conflict Deepens and fighting the war • Frustration grows
Gulf of Tonkin • Johnson fears losing Vietnam • South Vietnam is even more unstable after Diems assassination • August 4, 1964 Pres announces North Vietnamese torpedo boats attached a US destroyer – NV say US ship was conducting a naval raid • US allege a second incident
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • August 7, 1964 Pres Johnson gets the support of Congress • Without having a formal declaration of war • Congress gives Pres Johnson broad military powers in Vietnam • Operation Rolling Thunder – bombing raids of NV begin
Presenter on Robert McNamara • The Best and the Brightest reading
General William Westmoreland • US commander in South Vietnam • Continued to request more troops • Work with ARVIN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) South Vietnamese soldiers • War of attrition – gradual wearing down of the enemy by continuous harassment
Video on Pres. Johnson • Reaction so far…Is it fair to placed the entire blame on Vietnam on Johnson? • If you were Johnson, what would you have done? • Be sure to explain your response to both questions.
Smart Start • What made Vietnam so difficult to tackle? • What is meant by a living room war? • How would this play into the difficulties with Vietnam?
North Vietnamese Tactics • Hit and run • Ambush • Booby traps • Land mines • Elaborate tunnel system connecting villages
US tactics • War of attrition • Napalm – gasoline based bomb set fire to jungle • Agent Orange – leaf killing toxic chemical • Search and Destroy
Presenter on Landscape • Video clip from Forest Gump • List what Forrest Gump encountered when they arrived in Vietnam
Reflect: What do we know so far about Vietnam? • Let’s take a more personal look at how some Veteran’s experience changed them forever. Reading Assignment: Chapter 30: Section 3 (Vietnam years at Home)
Living Room War • Footage of combat appeared on the nightly news • What people saw was not what they were hearing from the government • Youth begin to protest
Media Role in Vietnam • As you listen/watch: take note on how media played a vital role in persuading public opinion of the conflict.
Draft • 18-26 • Deferments – medical, join National Guard, college, marriage • 80 % of US soldiers were from lower economic levels • African Americans accounted for 20% of deaths in Vietnam but only made up 10 % of US population
Women • Still non combat • 7500 army and navy nurses • Red Cross • USO – United States Organization – hospitality and entertainment of troops
Protests • College campuses • Sit-ins • Marches • Doves = people that think the US should withdraw • Hawks = use all US military power to defeat North Vietnam
Johnson’s “Peace without Conquest” Speech • Questions • What is the tone of the speech? • Why did Pres. Johnson give this speech? (Provide specific evidence from the speech) • Going back to our chart in the beginning, why must we go to war?
March on Washington • April 1965 • 20,000 protestors • 1966 Pres Johnson changed college deferments – had to be in good academic standing • Small number of Vietnam vets protested the war as well