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ABA. Motivation / Reinforcement & Punishment. Alison Mummert 2012. PHCS. Goal:. Recognize how the environment plays a role in behavior. Understand how antecedent and consequences function to alter frequency of behavior. (MO, SR+, Punishment)
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ABA Motivation / Reinforcement & Punishment Alison Mummert 2012 PHCS
Goal: • Recognize how the environment plays a role in behavior. • Understand how antecedent and consequences function to alter frequency of behavior. (MO, SR+, Punishment) • Understand how behavioral principles can be applied to make changes in student’s behavior.
Behaviorism: Study of observable/measurable behavior. Behavioral terms are observable / measurable • NOT Behavioral terms: He shut down… He had a meltdown… He was upset…. He felt overwhelmed… I know he can do it! • Observable/Measurable: When told to get the ball. He ran into the school and threw himself on the floor crying, kicking staff 4 times… He was tapping his pencil and rubbing his head. I observed him demonstrate the skill.
Behavior • - Observable/Measurable movement of a person • Analyze bx to determine it’s function. Escape/Attention/Automatic Reinforcement • Analyze bx we want to increase or decrease… Behavior is o________ & m__________
ABC Analysis • A- Antecedent – Anything in the environment before a particular behavior. • C- Consequence – Anything in the environment after a particular behavior. A- _______________- anything in the environment b_________ the behavior. B- ______________ - observable/measurable C- ______________ - anything in the environment a_____ the behavior.
Review… • Behavior is the o____________ and m______________ movement of a person. • Antecedent condition includes anything in the environment b____________ a behavior. • Consequence condition includes anything in the environment a__________ a behavior.
What is Motivation? • What Motivates You to Teach? • Teacher- Extrinsic Motivation: Paycheck, Schedule, Coworkers… • Teacher- Intrinsic Motivation: The feeling of achievement when a student grasps a skill. The good feeling knowing you are doing a good job. • What Motivates Students to work/enjoy learning? • Students- Extrinsic Motivation: friends, teachers, favorite subject, 100%, recess, value of a good education. • Students- Intrinsic Motivation: feeling successful when finishing goals, The sense of achievement when grasped a concept/finished goals. • Is Intrinsic Motivation… really inside you??
Motivative Operations • Motivation is an Antecedent that alters the value of a reinforcer. Motivation __________ the _________ of reinforcers.
Motivation ! • Motivation lies in the Environment • Affected by: Satiation/Deprivation Ex. Coffee and Environmental changes Ex. Bring out bag of chips Motivation affects the value of reinforcers! Motivation is in the ___________ and is affected by S___________/D_____________ and other E___________ changes
Reinforcement • Reinforcement: Consequence that increases the probability of a particular behavior occurring again under similar circumstances. • Reinforcement does what to behavior?______________
Reinforcement • Positive Reinforcement- Something added Ex. Candy/token/praise • Negative Reinforcement- Something removed Ex. Timeout(demand removed) • Reinforcement increases a particular behavior. Anything that increases a particular behavior is R_____________ Something added after a particular bx that causes that bx to increase is P________ ____________. Something removed after a particular bx that causes that bx to increase is N___________ _____________.
Reinforcement: Increases the probability of bx occurring again! Reinforce behaviors that you want to see increase
Value of reinforcement The student will engage in behavior that is associated with a stronger motivative operation. Be sure to establish motivation! • Effort (needed to respond) The student will engage in behavior that involves less effort. Make responding easy: use errorless procedures! • Rate of Reinforcement The student will engage in behavior that most consistently obtains reinforcement. Reinforce on an appropriate variable ratio schedule! • Magnitude of Reinforcement The student will engage in behavior that obtains the greatest degree (quality and/or quantity) of reinforcement. Provide more reinforcement for better responding! • Immediacy of Reinforcement The student will engage behavior that produces reinforcement quickly. Reinforce best responding immediately!
Variable Rate of Reinforcement • -Each student is different (rate of reinforcement needed.) • - Variable Rate is proven to keep behavior the strongest… Because its unpredictable. This may be the time I get reinforced… so I’m going to do a good job! This is why people play the lottery! If they can predict reinforcement and they know it’s not going to come… they are not going to give a strong response.
Punishment • Something added or taken away after a particular behavior, that decreases the probability of that behavior occurring again under similar circumstances in the future. • Consequence that decreases a particular behavior is-_______________
PaTTAN Autism Initiative Applied Behavior Analysis Support: Introduction to Teaching Procedures http://www.pattan.net/Videos/Browse/Single/?code_name=teaching_procedures_assembly • PaTTAN Autism Initiative Applied Behavior Analysis Support: Overview Assembly http://www.pattan.net/Videos/Browse/Single/?code_name=overview_assembly www.PaTTAN.net -- Videos