7th Grade UBD - Unit 5 – South Asia South Asia
Preview • History’s Impact on South Asia- South Asia’s religions, languages, politics and culture are rooted in its ancient past. • Life In South Asia- Family and village are the foundation of Indian life. • South Asia Divided- Most 0f South Asia was ruled by the British from 1800s until 1947. After independence, the subcontinent was divided into several nations.
National Geographic Video- Sights and Sounds of India
Eyewitness to History Reading Handout- Eyewitness to History 12
Key Ideas- History’s Impact on South Asia • South Asia’s civilization is one of the worlds oldest. • Many people migrated into South Asia, creating today’s mix of languages and religions. • South Asian nations today have had problems in building political unity.
South Asia By the beginning of the 21st century, South Asia had a population of well over 1 billion people. Its annual rate of growth is so high that it will soon have more people than China. Rapid population growth has put pressure on the region’s resources and environment. There are not enough jobs for everyone. Many people live in poverty. India, which is the most heavily populated country in the region, struggles to feed its people. What do you think? • Why is it important for countries to control population growth? • How do you think continuing population growth will affect life in South Asia?
South Asia • The movements of people and ideas through the nations of South Asia have produced a varied and exciting history. • Similarities and differences among these nations have led to both development and conflict.
Key Term Sanskrit- An ancient Indo-Aryan language that is the classical language of India and of Hinduism.
Division and Unity • South Asia has a long rich history. The subcontinent was seldom united. Rulers known as rajahs established small kingdoms across the northern plains. • Rival rajahs often turned the plain into a battlefield. Sometimes, a strong rajah united the North. • Meanwhile, small competing kingdoms dominated southern South Asia.
Key Term Rajahs- Early Asian Aryan rulers. The name comes from a Sanskrit word that means “king.”
Arrival of the British • In 1600, Queen Elizabeth I of England gave trade rights to the East India Company, an organization of English merchants, to trade in India and East and Southeast Asia.
Arrival of the British • The British set up factories and trading centers. • The East India Company shipped spices, tea, cotton, silk, indigo (used for dyeing), sugar, and gunpowder to England.
Arrival of the British • Gradually, the British increased their power. • The British army and navy, merchants, and Christian missionaries came to India, bringing new technology for railroads, the telegraph, steamships, and new methods of irrigation.
Making India British • They also introduced the British legal system, with new laws regarding landownership, and made English the official language.
Making India British Indians responded to the British in different ways. • Some chose to live just as they had before the British arrived. • Others chose to interact economically with the British by working for and with them while maintaining their traditions. • Still others studied the British traditions and adopted what seemed useful while keeping their own traditions.
Establishing Modern India Reading Handout- Establishing Modern India
Religious Traditions • Today South Asia is home to many religions. • Their importance may be seen in countless religious festivals and the towering temples that soar skyward in every large city. • Hindu temples are covered in elaborate carvings of gods, goddesses, animals and plants.
Hinduism: One and Many • Most of India’s festivals, temples, and worshippers are Hindu. • More than 80 percent of the population follows this faith. Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest living religions.
Hinduism: One and Many • Hindus respect all life. They believe the Universal Spirit lives in every creature. • Hindus especially honor cows as a sacred animal. Cows roam freely. Hindus do not kill cows. In fact , most Hindus do not eat any meat.
Hinduism: One and Many • Hindus also believe in reincarnation, the idea that the soul is reborn after death into a human or other form of life. • The cycle of birth, death, and rebirth continues until the soul becomes perfect and is unified with the Universal Spirit.
Key Term Reincarnation- The belief that the soul is reborn after death in human –or some other form.
Karma • Karma is the idea that a person’s every action affects his or her fate in the next life. • Bad actions can lead to rebirth in a lower form. While those who act correctly acquire good karma. Their souls are rewarded in the next life.
Independent Activity • On a piece of paper illustrate what you might be in your next life. Make sure to write at least two paragraphs explaining why you think you will exist in this new form in your next life. (8 minutes)
Reach Into Your Background • What if you had little choice when it came to choosing a job? Suppose that you were expected to work in the same occupation as the rest of your family. Write a few sentences telling how you would feel about this situation. (5 minutes)
Partner Activity • Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
The Indian Caste System Video- An Introduction to Hinduism and Caste
Hinduism and Caste • The caste system is a rigid social structure that emerged over thousands of years. • Over many centuries, each caste came to have a well-defined position.
The System Weakens • Today, the caste system in India is weakening. • After independence from Great Britain, India became a democracy. Today, India is the world’s largest democracy. • In the spirit of democracy, India passed laws to protect everyone from caste discrimination.
The System Weakens • The caste system is slow to change in rural areas since its hard to enforce the laws India has passed. • In crowded cities, however it is easier for people from different caste levels to blend into society. People there also tend to be more tolerant.
Islam in South Asia • After Hinduism, Islam has the largest number of followers in South Asia. • Today there are conflicts between Hindus and Muslims in India and causes instability in the region and the world.
Quick Facts About Islam • Islam is the major religion of Pakistan and Bangladesh. • In those countries, more than 90 percent of the population is Muslim. • Islam is based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. • The Quran, is the holy book of Islam. • Although Islam began in the Middle East, it spread to South Asia with the Muslim conquerors who invaded the region over the centuries.
Contrasts Between Islam and Hinduism Islam Hinduism Belief in many gods and goddesses. Different rules for different castes. No effort to convert others; individuals are born into Hinduism. Individuals unequal; spiritual status revealed by membership in caste Cows are sacred. Music; elaborately carved images of gods and animals. • Belief in one God. • The Quran provides same rules for everyone. • Muslims have a duty to convert others to Islam. • All believers are equal before God. • Cows (but not pork) may be eaten for food. • No human or animal images or music in worship.
Quick Facts About Buddhism • Around 500 BCE, the religion known as Buddhism took root in South Asia. • The faith incorporates the Hindu concepts of reincarnation and karma. • Buddha also taught the path to inner peace through understanding and confronting the reasons for human suffering. • After his death, Buddhism spread through South Asia and became a dominant faith in East and Southeast Asia.
Buddhism and the Middle Way • At the heart of Buddhism are the Four Noble Truths: • Life is full of suffering. • The cause of suffering is desire. • The cure for suffering is to overcome desire. • The way to end desire and achieve salvation is to follow the Middle Way. • The Middle Way was a guide to correct conduct. It includes ethical, or moral rules.
Key Term Buddhism- Buddhism teaches that meditation and good religious and moral behavior can lead to Nirvana.
Questions • What is the main religion of India? • What is the caste system and how is the caste system different in cities and rural villages?
Answers • What is the main religion of India and what are its followers called. • The main religion of India is Hinduism and people who practice Hinduism are known as Hindu’s. • What is the caste system and how is the caste system different in cities and rural villages? • The caste system divides people in order from the bottom of society to the top. The caste system is slow to change in rural areas since it’s hard to enforce the laws India has passed. In crowded cities, however it is easier for people from different caste levels to blend into society. People there also tend to be more tolerant.
Key Ideas- Life In South Asia • The family is the basic unit of South Asian society. Family interests come before an individual’s wishes. • Most South Asians live in villages. Villages follow traditional ways of life. • The caste system remains strong in Indian villages. It is less rigid in cities.
Weather Patterns of South Asia Video- Weather Patterns of South Asia
People and Monsoons • Monsoons are one of the most important aspects of the climate of South Asia. • The word “monsoon” comes from the Arabic word for “seasons.” This is because it is the monsoons that bring the seasons to South Asia. • It is the defining element of climate, and of agriculture, in South Asia.
People and Monsoons • The monsoons are wind patterns that control the climate of the region. • In the summer, the monsoons bring warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean causing heavy rains. • In the winter, the wind pattern reverses itself. Cool, dry winds blow from the northwest across India. These bring drought to the region.
Key Term Monsoon- A strong wind that brings heavy rain to South Asia in the summer and droughts in the winter.
Family Ties • Today, as in the past, family teaches children to respect and obey their elders. • Parents decide how much schooling their children will have and what skills they will learn. Even as children, they know that their family’s interests will come first.
Daily Routines • Young children are allowed freedom to play until they are about seven years old. Older children may attend the local primary school. For most family members, days are filled with the hard work of farm life.
Changing Ways • Village life revolves around planting, harvesting, or waiting for the monsoon. It has changed little for centuries. Yet the modern world is affecting old ways. Paved roads instead of dirt tracks link some villages to towns and cities.
Changing Ways • Larger villages may have money and electricity to power light bulbs or pumps. • Families with relatives working in a city may have money for luxury items. • So far, outside influences have not made dramatic changes in the lives of village families.
Customs • In rural India, girls usually marry at an early age, often in their teens. After the marriage, the bride moves into the home of her husband’s family. There, she is expected to serve and to obey her mother-in-law.
Questions • The word “monsoon” comes from the Arabic word meaning what? • In India today, as in the past, who teaches children to respect and obey their elders?
Answer • The word “monsoon” comes from the Arabic word meaning what? • The word “monsoon” comes from the Arabic word for “seasons.” This is because it is the monsoons that bring the seasons to South Asia. • In India today, as in the past, who teaches children to respect and obey their elders? • The family teaches children to respect and obey their elders.