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Chapter 3—Cells and Tissues

Chapter 3—Cells and Tissues

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Chapter 3—Cells and Tissues

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  1. Chapter 3—Cells and Tissues

  2. 1. In the cell, calcium is needed for blood clotting, iron is necessary to make hemoglobin, iodine is required to make the thyroid hormone that controls metabolism, and sodium and potassium ions are essential if nerve impulses are to be transmitted.

  3. 2. In addition to containing large amounts of water, all the cells of the body are constantly bathed in a dilute saltwater solution called interstitial fluid.

  4. 3. In general, all cells have 3 main regions or parts, a nucleus, cytoplasm, and a plasma membrane.

  5. Name Structure Function

  6. Name Structure Function

  7. Name Structure Function

  8. 5. In passive transport processes, substances are transported across the membrane without energy input from the cell.

  9. 6. Exocytosis is the means by which cells actively secrete hormones, mucus, or other cell products, or eject cellular wastes.

  10. 7. Endocytosis includes those ATP-requiring processes that take up, or engulf, extracellular substances by enclosing them in a vesicle.

  11. 8. The 4 primary tissue types, epithelium, connective, nervous, and muscle tissue interweave to form the fabric of the body.

  12. 9. Tissue Roles -epithelium: covering -connective: support -muscle: movement -nervous: control

  13. 10. Since epithelium forms the boundaries that separate us from the outside world, nearly all substances given off or received by the body must pass through the epithelium.

  14. Describe the 4 functions of epithelium: • Protection: protects against bacterial and chemical damage • Absorption: absorb food substances into the body • Filtration: in the kidneys, it filters impurities out of the blood • Secretion: perspiration, oil, mucus, digestive enzymes are secreted through epithelia

  15. 12. Epithelial cells fit closely together to form continuous sheets. The membranes always have one free surface or edge. Epithelial cells have no blood supply of their own, but they regenerate themselves easily if well nourished.

  16. 13. Each epithelium is given 2 names. The first indicates the relative number of cell layers it has. The second describes the shape of its cells.

  17. Difference between simple and stratified epithelium Simple epithelium has 1 layer of cells. Stratified epithelium has more than 1 layer.

  18. 3 Basic Shapes of Epithelial Cells • Squamous: flattened like fish scales • Cuboidal: cube-shaped, like dice • Columnar: shaped like columns

  19. 16. Transitional epithelium is a highly modified, stratified squamous epithelium that form the lining of urinary organs. The ability of transitional cells to slide past one another and change their shape allows the ureter wall to stretch as urine flows through.

  20. 17. The secretions of endrocrine glands diffuse directly into the blood vessels that weave through the glands.

  21. 18. Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed type of tissue in the body. Connective tissues are primarily involved in protecting, supporting and binding together other body tissues.

  22. Tissue Description Function

  23. Tissue Description Function

  24. 20. Muscle tissues are highly specialized to contract to produce movement. Because they are elongated, muscle cells are called muscle fibers.

  25. 21. Skeletal muscle is packaged by connective tissue sheets into organs called skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton. These muscles can be controlled voluntarily.

  26. 22. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. Cardiac muscle is under involuntary control, which means that we cannot consciously control the activity of the heart.

  27. 23. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs. When it contracts, the cavity of an organ alternately becomes smaller or enlarges so that substances are propelled through the organ.

  28. 24. All neurons receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another.

  29. Tissue Repair • REGENERATION • FIBROSIS—SCAR TISSUE