Cells, Tissues, and Organ Systems A guide to Chapter 3, Cells:
Cells Cells: The basic units of structure and function of living things. Organelles: “Tiny Organs”, The structures that make up the cell.
The Cell Theory • All living things are made of cells. • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. • Living cells come only from other living cells.
Famous Biologists • Robert Hooke: An English Scientist who was the first person to view the cell. Saw dead plant cell walls in the cork. Coined the phrase “cell”. • Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: A Dutch merchant who invented the microscope. First to view living cells.
More…. • Matthias Schleiden:A German Botanist. Discovered that all plants are made of plant cells. • Theodor Schwann: A German zoologist who discovered that all animals were made up of animal cells. • Rudolph Virchow: A German physician who discovered that all living cells come from other living cells.
Structure and Function of Cells • Cell Wall: Support and protection, made of cellulose a non-living material. Only in plant cells. • Cell Membrane: Doorway of the cell, has pores. Controls movement of materials in and out of the cell.
Nucleus • Control Center of the Cell; The “brain”. • Has a Nuclear Membrane surrounding it. • Contains Chromosomes: They direct all of the cell’s activities and pass on traits to new cells. • Chromosomes have two nucleic acids: RNA and DNA • Nucleolus: “Little Nucleus”; produces ribosomes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: • Clear tubular passageways. • Transportation system that sends proteins from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane and out of the cell..
Ribosomes • Protein Factories • Small grain-like bodies, • Produced in the nucleolus. • Made of RNA • Most are attached to the ER.
Mitochondria • Powerhouse of the cell. • Supplies most of the energy to the cell. • Have their own DNA.
Vacuoles • Storage Tank of the cell. • Large, round, water filled sac. • Larger in the plant cell. • Stores; food, water and wastes.
Lysosomes • Cleanup crew for the cell. • Rare in plant cells. • Small, round structures. • Contain digestive enzymes. • Breaks down food and sends it to the mitochondria to be used for energy.
Chloroplasts • Food producers for the cell. • Large, irregularly shaped green structures. • Contain Chlorophyll, a green pigment that captures energy from the sun to produce food. • Only found in plant cells.
Cell Processes • Metabolism: All building up and breaking down activities of the cell. • Respiration: When food is broken down to produce energy (mitochondria). • Aerobic respiration: Needs oxygen. • Anaerobic respiration: Without oxygen (Fermentation).
More…. • Diffusion: The process of molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. • Osmosis: The diffusion of water. • Active Transport: Uses energy to transport material needed by the cell.
Cell Specialization: • The arrangement of specialized parts within a living organism. • Cells • Tissues: Made up of similar cells. • Organs: A group of different tissues. (heart, lung, muscles, brain, etc.) • Organ Systems: A group of organs that work together. (Nervous system) • Organism: The entire living thing.
The End Created by Mrs. Brenner Exploring Life Science Prentice Hall