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Cells and Tissues: Cells

Cells and Tissues: Cells

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Cells and Tissues: Cells

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  1. Cells and Tissues:Cells

  2. Animal cell Bacterial cell Cell size comparison most bacteria • ___________ eukaryotic cells • _______________ • micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter • diameter of human hair = ~20 microns

  3. Why study cells? • Cells  Tissues  Organs  Bodies • ____________________________ • ____________________________

  4. Anatomy of the Cell • Cells are _________________________ • All cells share general structures • All cells ________________________ • _____________________ • _____________________ • _______________________ Figure 3.1a

  5. Nucleus • Function • _______________________________ • ______________________ • instructions for building proteins • Structure • _______________________ • nucleolus • _______________________ • chromosomes • DNA

  6. Cell membrane phosphate“head” • Function • __________________________ • ___________________________ • _______________________________________ • recognizes signals from other cells • allows communication between cells • Structure • double layer of _________ • ________________________ • receptor molecules • proteins that _______________________ lipid “tail”

  7. Plasma Membrane Figure 3.2

  8. Ribosomes • Function • ___________________________ • read instructions to build ________________________ • Structure • ___________________________ • some __________________________________ Ribosomes on ER

  9. Plasma Membrane Specializations • Membrane junctions • Tight junctions • __________________________ • Bind cells together into _________________________ • Desmosomes • Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart • Gap junctions • ________________________ between cells

  10. Cytoplasm • Cytoplasm is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane • Contains three major elements • Cytosol • ________________________________ • Organelles • ________________________________________ • “__________________” that perform functions for the cell • Inclusions • Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products

  11. cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place lysosome food digestion garbage disposal &recycling vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage mitochondria make ATP energy from sugar + O2 cell membrane cell boundary controls movementof materials in & out recognizes signals

  12. Mitochondria • Function • __________________________________ • ________________________________ • fuels the work of life • Structure • __________________ ATP in both animal & plant cells

  13. Plants make energy two ways! ATP • Mitochondria • make energy from sugar + O2 • _________________________ • ___________________________ • Chloroplasts • make energy + sugar from sunlight • photosynthesis • __________________________ • ATP = _____________________ • sugar = ___________________ • build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars sugar ATP

  14. mitochondria chloroplast Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Function • _______________________ • helps complete the ________________________builds them • makes membranes • Structure • ___________________ • ribosomes attached • works on proteins • _____________________ • makes membranes

  16. Golgi Apparatus • Function • _________________________________ • like ______________________________ • shipping & receiving department • ships proteins in ________________ • “UPS trucks” • Structure • ______________________ vesicles carrying proteins transport vesicles

  17. Lysosomes • Function • ______________ • used to make energy • _______________ • digest broken organelles • Structure • membrane sac of digestive enzymes lysosomes digesting brokenorganelles vacuole small foodparticle digesting food

  18. A Job for Lysosomes 6 weeks 15 weeks

  19. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Peroxisomes • ____________________________________ • Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde • Break down ________________________________ • Replicate by pinching in half

  20. Vacuoles & vesicles • Function • _________________around cell • __________ • Structure • ________________ small foodparticle vacuole filled w/ digestive enzymes vesicle vesicle filled w/ digested nutrients

  21. cytoplasm jelly-like material holding organelles in place vacuole & vesicles transport inside cells storage cell membrane cell boundary controls movementof materials in & out recognizes signals

  22. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Cytoskeleton • Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm • Provides _________________________________ Figure 3.7a

  23. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Cytoskeleton • Three different types of elements • ____________________ • Intermediate filaments • _____________________ Figure 3.7b–d

  24. Cytoplasmic Organelles • Centrioles • Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules • Direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division

  25. TO: TO: TO: endoplasmicreticulum nucleus proteinon its way! DNA RNA vesicle vesicle ribosomes TO: protein finishedprotein Golgi apparatus Making Proteins

  26. Cellular Projections • Not _________________________________ • Used for movement • ___________________________________ • Located in the respiratory system to move mucus • ________________________________ • The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm