1 / 79

1.23k likes | 2.1k Vues

Hydraulic Calculations. Objectives. We will cover the following: The basic formulas for calculating: Determining pump discharge pressure Determining flow Calculating friction loss. It’s about the math. Yep it’s algebra, get over it

Télécharger la présentation
## Hydraulic Calculations

**An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation**
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.
Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only.
Download presentation by click this link.
While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.

E N D

**Objectives**• We will cover the following: • The basic formulas for calculating: • Determining pump discharge pressure • Determining flow • Calculating friction loss**It’s about the math**• Yep it’s algebra, get over it • This is why your Mom and Dad told you to pay attention in school • I know most of you haven’t done math since you left school • I was worse at math than you**Too much time**• Most guys will spend MOST of their time preparing for the Drivers test studying the math • Realistically it’s less than 30% of the test • It’s the most important 30% but still it’s only 30%**This is just a review**• This is not an algebra course, we don’t have the time for that • It’s just a review of the formulas and a chance for us to make sure you are working them correctly**Pump Discharge Pressure**• Pump discharge pressure is the SUM total of ALL losses • Friction loss • Nozzle pressure • Elevation loss • Appliance loss • Formula – PDP=NP+FL+EL+AL**Friction Loss**• Standard Calculation: • CQ2L • C=Coefficient (from chart) • Q=Flow (gpm/100) • L=Length (figured in 100 foot lengths)**Coefficients – (C)**• These are the coefficients for the hose that WE use: • 1 ½” 24 • 1 ¾” 15.5 • 2 ½” 2 • 3” .8 • 5” .08 • There are more but they are for hose we either don’t have or use**How to determine flow – (Q)**• There are three possibilities when it comes to Q: • Smooth bore nozzles have to be calculated based on tip size • Selectable gallon nozzles are determined by the selected flow • Automatic nozzles are determined desired flow**Calculating flow**• Smooth bore formula: • 29.7 X D2 X √np • 29.7 is a constant • D2 is the nozzle tip size squared • Square root of the nozzle pressure • Hand lines – 7 • Master streams - 9**The constant**• 29.7**Diameter squared**• 1” tip • d=1, d2= 1 x 1 or 1 • 1 ½” tip • d=1.5, d2= 1.5 x 1.5 or 2.25 • 2” tip • d=2, d2= 2 x 2 or 4 • The principle is the same for ANY smooth bore orifice regardless of size**Square root of NP**• If your calculator has a square root key you can use it • Or • Since hand line NP is 50 you can simply use 7 (square root of 49, which is really close) • And master streams NP is 80 you can use 9 (square root of 81, again it’s really close)**Example for finding (Q)**• 29.7 x d2 x sq. rt. of NP • 1” tip on a 2 ½” smooth bore hand line • 29.7 x 1 x 7=207.9 • 207.9 gpm • This is the ACTUAL flow • 207.9 is not practical for calculation in the field so we round it off to 210 • IMPORTANT: for written testing the actual flow will have to be calculated do not round to more than 1 decimal place!**Rounded field flow**• This is what we use in the field (also what your pump chart is based on) • 2 ½” hand lines • 1” 210gpm • 1 1/8” 265gpm • 1 ¼” 325gpm**Calculated and field flows**• Master streams • 1 3/8” 505 (actual) 500gpm (rounded) • 1 ½” 591 (actual) 600gpm (rounded) • 1 ¾” 818 (actual) 800gpm (rounded) • 2” 1063 (actual) 1000gpm (rounded) • For ease of calculation and based on the fact that master streams are secured rounding to the above numbers is acceptable**Known Flow (Q)**• For known flows from selectable gallonage nozzles • For automatic nozzles where you set the DESIRED gallonage • Example: • 1 ¾” nozzle SET at 125gpm • Automatic nozzle where 125gpm is desired**Determining Q**• Q simply stands for quantity • In order to get Q to fit in the equation we have to work a formula to get a small number • Otherwise we would have a large number that is unwieldy • We simply divide GPM by 100 and then square the result**It’s really simple**• Q=GPM/1002 • 125gpm/1002 • 125/100=1.25 • 1.25x1.25=1.56 (rounded to 2 decimal places) • Q=1.56**Length – (L)**• This is the multiplier for your calculation of friction loss • Since all calculations are figured on 100 foot sections we need to have a way to distribute your work to the entire system • Each 100’ section gets a value of 1 • Example: 200’ of hose = 2**Putting it together**• CQ2L=friction loss • 100 feet of 1 ½” hose flowing 125gpm • C=24 • Q2=1.56 • L=1 • 24 x 1.56 x 1 = 37.44 • Friction Loss is 37.44 psi per 100 foot section**Your turn**• Try figuring the following: • 200gpm through 300’ 1 ¾” hose • 600gpm through 1000’ 5” hose • 300gpm through 500’ 3” hose • 250gpm through 200’ 2 ½” hose**200gpm through 300’ 1 ¾” hose**• CQ2 L • C=15.5 • Q=200/100 or 2 • Q2=2*2 or 4 • L=3 • 15.5*4*3=186 • FL for this hose lay is 186psi**600gpm through 1000’ 5” hose**• CQ2 L • C=.08 • Q=600/100 or 6 • Q2=6*6 or 36 • L=10 • .08*36*10=28.8 • FL for this hose lay is 28.8psi**300gpm through 500’ 3” hose**• CQ2 L • C=.8 • Q=300/100 or 3 • Q2=3*3 or 9 • L=5 • .8*9*5=36 • FL for this hose lay is 36psi**250gpm through 200’ 2 ½” hose**• CQ2 L • C=2 • Q=250/100 or 2.5 • Q2=2.5*2.5 or 6.25 • L=2 • 2*6.25*2=25 • FL for this hose lay is 25psi**Nozzle pressure**• Fog nozzles (automatics are fog) • Hand lines 100psi • Master streams 100psi • Aerial Devices • Trucks 80psi • Ladder 100psi**Nozzle pressure**• Smooth bore • Hand lines 50psi • Master streams 80psi • Mounted master streams 100psi**Elevation Loss/Gain**• A column of water 1 foot tall exerts .434psi at it’s base • We round this up to .5psi or ½ pound per foot • This pressure works either for us or against us**Elevation Gain (head pressure)**• If we stay with the ½ pound per foot then we gain 5 pounds of force for every 10 feet • 10*.5=5 • Example – A 100 foot water tower generates 50psi head pressure at its base**Elevation Loss**• If we have to move water up, the pressure is reversed • Elevation loss is ½ pound per foot • 100 feet of elevation = 50psi of loss**Buildings and EL**• It’s just a little different, and really only applies to standpipes • Floor height is considered to be 10 feet • Multiply 10 feet by .5 and the result is 5 • Standard elevation loss is 5psi per floor (not including the first floor)**Appliance Loss**• For flows under 350gpm 0psi • For flows over 350gpm 10psi • Master stream appliances 25psi • Trucks are the exception! • Truck 1,3 & 5 50psi**You try it**• 200 feet 1 ¾” flowing 150gpm • 150 feet 2 ½” flowing 1 1/8” tip • 150 feet 1 ¾” flowing 125gpm • 800 feet of 5” flowing 1200gpm • 150 feet 1 ½” flowing 60gpm • 400 feet of 3” flowing 400gpm**200 feet 1 ¾” flowing 150gpm**• PDP = FL + NP (this is a known flow so it’s fog) • FL = CQ2L • C = 15.5 • Q2 = 1.52 or 2.25 • L = 2 • FL=15.5 x 2.25 x 2 or 69.75 • NP = 100 • PDP is 169.75 or 169.8**We need to find Q 1st**Q = 29.7 x d2 x √NP 29.7 (constant) d2 = 1.1252 or 1.27 √NP = 7 (sqrt of 49) 29.7 x 1.27 x 7 = 264.03 264 (rounded)/100=2.64 2.6(rounded) Q = 2.6 PDP = FL + NP FL = CQ2L C = 2 Q2 = 2.62 or 6.76 L = 1.5 FL= 2 x 6.76 x 1.5 or 20.28 NP = 50 (handline) PDP is 70.28 or 70.3 150 feet 2 ½” flowing 1 1/8” tip**150 feet 1 ¾” flowing 125gpm**• PDP = FL + NP (this is a known flow so it’s fog) • FL = CQ2L • C = 15.5 • Q2 = 1.252 or 1.56 • L = 1.5 • FL=15.5 x 1.56 x 1.5 or 36.27 • NP = 100 • PDP is 136.27 or 136.3**800 feet of 5” flowing 1200gpm**• PDP = FL (there is no NP for this exercise) • FL = CQ2L • C = .08 • Q2 = 122 or 144 • L = 8 • FL=.08 x 144 x 8 = 92.16 • PDP is 92.16**150 feet 1 ½” flowing 60gpm**• PDP = FL + NP (this is a known flow so it’s fog) • FL = CQ2L • C = 24 • Q2 = .62 or .36 • L = 1.5 • FL=24 x .36 x 1.5 or 12.96 • NP = 100 • PDP is 112.96 or 113**400 feet of 3” flowing 400gpm**• PDP = FL (there is no NP for this exercise) • FL = CQ2L • C = .8 • Q2 = 42 or 16 • L = 4 • FL=.8 x 16 x 4 = 51.2 • PDP is 51.2**Complex hose lays**• Complex hose lays are nothing more than a series of simple lays strung together • Complex lays are either wyed apart (flow is combined) or siamesed together (flow is divided) • Major concern with multiple lines is length, diameter and flow per line**Pressure is the killer**• The reason we end up with complex lays is because of pressure • High GPM flows generally equal high pressure • The only way we reduce pressure is to reduce flow per line • The way we do that is by adding lines to divide the flow**Two things**• The two factors we need to address are: • Maximum efficient flow • Percent of test pressure**Maximum efficient flow**• While it is theoretically possible to flow water forever there are real limits to how far we can shove water and still have a usable stream • This is referred to as Maximum Efficient Flow (MEF)**Maximum efficient flow**• MEF for 5” hose is 1200gpm • MEF for 3” hose is 500gpm • MEF for 2 ½” hose is 300gpm

More Related