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BIOSPHERE Chapter 3 REVIEW. http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html. List the 6 levels of organization that ecologists study from smallest to largest. Organisms → . Populations →. Ecosystems →. Communities →. BIOSPHERE . Biomes →. Competition Predation Symbiosis.

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  1. BIOSPHEREChapter 3REVIEW http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html

  2. List the 6 levels of organization that ecologists study from smallest to largest Organisms → Populations → Ecosystems → Communities → BIOSPHERE Biomes →

  3. CompetitionPredation Symbiosis Name 3 ways organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other

  4. All the organisms that live in a place PLUS their non-living environment ecosystem Another name for autotrophs producers

  5. Tell the two ways AUTOtrophs get their energy Chemosynthsis & photosynthesis

  6. The portion of the Earth in which all life exists biosphere Make a food chain out of the following: herbivore omnivore autotroph autotroph → herbivore → omnivore

  7. BACTERIA in soil WHICH ORGANISMS are responsible for removing nitrogen from and returning nitrogen to the atmosphere? The process of taking nitrogen from the atmosphere and changing it into a form plants can use is called ______________________ The process of converting soil nitrogen back into atmospheric form is called _______________________ NITROGEN FIXATION DENITRIFICATION

  8. biogeochemical cycles Matter moves through ecosystemsin ______________ food chains/webs biogeochemical cycles Which of these is a decomposer? ↑Fungi and SOME bacteria are decomposers

  9. omnivore Organism that eats both plants and meat Process in which water from plant leaves evaporates into the atmosphere transpiration

  10. Energy is passed in one-way direction through the biotic (living organisms) in an ecosystem. Matter cycles within and between biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem. How does the way matter flows through an ecosystem differ from the way that energy flows? Which biogeochemical cycle does NOT involve a stage where the chemical enters the atmosphere? phosphorus

  11. denitrification Process in which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas and release it into the atmosphere Nutrient which is scare or cycles slowly that controls population growth Limiting nutrient

  12. Bacteria or fungi (break down organic material and absorb the nutrients) Give an example of a decomposer Which group of organisms is always found in the first trophic level of every food chain or web? Autotrophs or producers

  13. Why is only about 10% of the energy in an organism transferred in a food chain? Some is used by organism for life processes such as movement, transport, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and rest is lost as HEAT Give an example of an ABIOTIC factor Climate, temperature, precipitation, wind, soil type, water availability, sunlight

  14. Food, water, shelter, territory, light Give an example of a RESOURCE

  15. Who is it? Heterotroph that obtains energy by eating only plants ___________________ Heterotroph that eats both plants and animals _____________________ Heterotroph that breaks down organic matter (Ex: Fungi & bacteria) __________________ Heterotroph that feed on dead plants and animal remains (EX:Crabs & worms) ___________________ Heterotroph that eats only meat ___________________ HERBIVORE OMNIVORE DECOMPOSER DETRITIVORE CARNIVORE

  16. Food webs are made up of many food chains How is a food web different from afood chain? Which of these is an herbivore? ↑Zebras are herbivores

  17. Tell two ways water returns to the atmosphere in the water cycle. Evaporation and transpiration

  18. omnivore An organism that eats both meat and plants Name a limiting factor that could cause a population to decrease Competition- for food, shelter, territory Predation Disease/Parasitism Drought/climate change Human disturbance

  19. Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following EXCEPT: Photosynthesis respiration transpiration decomposition TRANSPIRATION moves water in the water cycle An organism that eats ONLY plants herbivore


  21. The portion of the Earth in which all life exists biosphere Organism that captures and eats another predator

  22. Biotic factors are living; Abiotic factors are the non-living parts of an ecosystem What is the difference between a BIOTIC and ABIOTIC factor? Which organisms are responsible for nitrogen fixation in the nitrogen cycle? Bacteria in soil

  23. Symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit from their close association mutualism An “organism’s job” that includes what it eats, what eats it, where in the habitat it lives, how it acts, and when & how it reproduces? niche

  24. Photosynthesis ChemosynthesisRequires light Happens without light Gets energy from Gets energy from sunlight inorganic compounds Tell one way chemosynthesis is different from photosynthsis. In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria living on the roots of plants turn nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into _________. ammonia

  25. Both: Ways organisms get energy Use energy to make carbohydrates Happen in autotrophs Tell one way chemosynthesis and photosynthesis are ALIKE. Energy moves through ecosystems in ________________. biogeochemical cycles food chains/webs food chains/webs

  26. population A group of individuals that belong to the same species that live together in an area Another name for heterotrophs consumers

  27. Which of the following is TRUE? Producers make up the first trophic level. Food chains are made by linking many food webs. All the energy is passed from one trophic level to the next Energy flows through the ecosystem in one direction from the sun to producers to consumers. TRUE FALSE: Food webs are made by linking food chains F Only about 10% is passed on to the next level. Most is used for life processes or lost as heat TRUE

  28. autotrophs Organisms that are able to take in energy from their environment and make their own carbohydrates are called ___________________________ Which of these is a carnivore? ↑Lions are carnivores

  29. Group of different populations that live together in an area community All the living things an ecosystem that an organism might interact with Biotic factors

  30. This diagram shows a ____________ Which of the organisms above is: a producer ? ______________ a consumer? _____________ How many trophic levels are shown? food chain BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006 algae Zooplankton, fish, squid, shark 5

  31. Principle that states no two organisms can share the same niche at the same time in the same place Competitive exclusion principle Chemical substance organisms needto sustain life nutrient

  32. Detritivores EAT dead organisms; Decomposers break them down (organic material) and absorb the nutrients How is a detritivore different from a decomposer? Name one of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about Carbon, nitrogen, Water (hydrogen & oxygen); phosphorus

  33. species Group of organisms so similar that they can breed and produce fertile offspring An organism that is captured and eaten by another prey

  34. Process in which some bacteria use energy stored in the chemical bonds of inorganic compounds to make carbohydrates in the absence of light chemosynthesis Series of steps in which organisms transfer energy through an ecosystem by eating and being eaten Food chain

  35. Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is neither harmed nor helped commensalism The scientific study of interactions between organisms and between organisms and their environment ecology

  36. food web This diagram is called a _______________ What do you think would happen to the snake population in this community if all the pine borer bugs were killed by a virus? A loss in pine borer bugs would decrease the populations of salamanders and golden crested kinglets (food for the snake) Loss of pine borers would eventually cause a decrease in the snake population too.

  37. Any necessity for life such as water, food, light, or space resource Relationship in which organismsattempt to use the same resource at the same time and place competition

  38. decomposers Organism such as bacteria or fungi that break down organic matter Each step in a food chain or web trophic level

  39. community Groups of different species that live together in an area make up a __________________ Which of these is an omnivore? ↑Most humans are omnivores

  40. Process in which green plants use energy from sunlight to produce carbohydrates photosynthesis Another name for a living thing organism

  41. Carbon, Hydrogen, nitrogen , oxygen Which 4 atoms make up over 95% of the body in most organisms? Which of the biogeochemical cycles you learned about recycles hydrogen and oxygen? Hydrologic or water cycle

  42. Organism such as mites, snail, earthworms, or crabs that eat dead plants or animals detritivore Process in which bacteria in soil convert nitrogen gas into ammonia Nitrogen fixation

  43. carnivore An organism that eats ONLY meat Tell how a detritovore is different from a decomposer. Both get nutrients from dead organisms; detritivores eat dead stuff; decomposers Absorb energy from dead stuff, but DON’T actually EAT it.

  44. Symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits by living on or inside another which is harmed parasitism Principle that states no 2 organisms can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time. Competitive exclusion principle

  45. Which level is it? Group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. ___________________ Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and communities _____________________ Organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring __________________ Populations that live together in an area ____________________ Portion of the planet in which all life exists ___________________ Collection of all the organisms that live in an area together with their physical environment ___________________ POPULATION BIOME SPECIES COMMUNITY BIOSPHERE ECOSYSTEM

  46. Organisms that can make their own food using energy from sunlight or chemical bonds in inorganic compounds autotrophs or producers All the non-living things such as climate, temperature, weather, soil type, or sunlight in an ecosystem that impact an organism Abiotic factors

  47. Hydrologic cycle Another name for the water cycle Cycle in which photosynthesis and cellular respiration participate Carbon cycle

  48. Organism that can’t make its own food and get energy from consuming other organisms heterotrophs or consumers Any relationship in which two species live closely together symbiosis

  49. Interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another. predation Network of complex interactions linking all the food chains in an ecosystem food web

  50. herbivore Organism that eats only plants Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from part of the biosphere to another Biogeochemical cycle

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