About this learning material Using this learning material or ‘Programme’ you can learn the following four topics related to English grammar: Adjectives: definition, meaning, types of adjectives Degree of Comparisons: Positive Degree, Comparative Degree and Superlative Degree ,transformation of degrees Change the Voice: Active voice, Passive voice, their rules applied in the different types of sentences Direct-Indirect Speech:
You may think that this is just another textbook on ‘English Grammar’. No, it is not just a textbook or Series of Question Answers. • By reading this programme carefully, you learn about English Grammar’ yourself. You do not require a teacher to teach you. • Every one of you has a copy of the programme, you would read and learn at your own speed. • When a teacher teaches you or when you try to learn by reading textbooks, it is possible that after much has been covered you realize that you have not understood anything. However, such a situation never arises in this programme .As after each step you come to know whether you have understood the point or not.
The programme contains a number of small units called ‘frames’. Each frame presents some information and includes a question, which you have to answer. The correct answer to each question is given immediately below it. • Although there are questions and answers, the programme is ‘not a test’. Through question & answer, the material has been organized in logical steps so that it is easy for you to learn by yourself.
HOW TO LEARN USING THIS PROGRAMME: • Read the programme at your own speed. • Read each frame carefully & thoroughly so that you properly understand the question asked in it. • While reading the programme, you will come across certain words underlined. Study these words carefully as they may help you in answering the questions that come afterwards. • Do not write anything in the programme. Write the answers for the frames in the answer sheet.
Since you have to answer a question in every frame, you would naturally be interested in knowing whether your answer is correct or not. Therefore, the correct answer is given immediately below the frame. You should keep the correct answer covered with the card provided for this purpose until you have written your own answer to the frame in the answer sheet. • After writing your answer, you move the card & compare your answer with the correct answer. You will find that you are right almost all the time. If your answer is wrong, read the frame again & understand why you are wrong, & then go to the next frame.
You are familiar with the word Noun. Your name, your father’s name, your mother’s name, your friend’s name, all is the examples of noun. For e.g. Bhavika, Gunjan’ RiyaSurvesh, and Mayank these all are nouns. These all are names of particular boy & girl. These are Proper Nouns. • Asoka was a great king. In this sentence, the word ‘Asoka’ is a P--------------Noun. Proper
2) You know that the words such as- girl, boy, school, pen, pencil, chair, table, and bottle are nouns. These nouns are used commonly to the members of that class. For e.g.pen It may be red, blue, black, or ball or ink pen. If I say you, “give me a pen”. You will give me any type of pen. It means that a pen is a common noun. Asoka was a great king. In this sentence Asoka is a proper noun& king is a c------- noun. common
4 ) Examine the following sentences: • This is a house. • This is an old men house. • Now answer the question: • Whose house is it? Old men
5) The sentence ‘This is a house.’ does not give any information about the noun house. But in second sentence word “old men” describes the house. We may say that the word, which describes the noun, is an -------------- adjective
6) Pick out the adjectives • This is an interesting book. • These flowers are beautiful. • This is a drawing paper. • There is little time for preparation. interesting beautiful, drawing little
7) Examine the following sentences : • Riya has cousins. • Riya has five cousins. • Answer the question: How many cousins have Riya? • Answer is ----------- five
8) The word “five” shows the number of cousins. It also describes the noun cousins. We may say that the word, which tells number of the nouns, is as an adjective. In the above sentence, Riya has five cousins. In this sentence the “five” is an ---------- adjective
9) Pick out the adjectives: • I ate some rice. • Sunday is the first day of the week. • He ate two cutlets. • Her weight is 90 k.g. some first, two 90
10) Examine the following sentences: • Mayank does not like toy. • Mayank does not like that toy. • Which toy does Mayank not like? Answer is -------------- that
11) Mayank does not like that toy. In this, sentence that points out which girl is meant. • We may say that the word, which point out the noun is as an adjective. In above sentence that is an -----------. adjective
12)Thus, we may define: A word used with a noun to describe, or to point out, the person or to tell the number or quantity, is called as an adjective.
13) Examine the following sentences: • Survesh likes a cat. • Survesh likes a pussycat. • Now answer the question: Which cat does survesh like? • Answer is -------------------------. pussycat
14 )Survesh likes a pussycat. • In this example “pussy” is used for a cat .Cat is an (animal / human) animal
15) The word P ussyis used to describe the quality of a cat. So the word P ussyis known as an----- adjective
16) Read the following sentence: • Riya has five puppies. • Answer the question: How many puppies have Riya? • Your answer is ------------- five
17 ) The word five tells the number of puppies. The word five is known as an ------ adjective
18)From above examples we may say that an adjective is used to describe ------------ ( animal / inanimate) animal
19) Examine the following sentences. • Bhopal is a city. Bhopal is a city of Lakes. • Answer the question: • What kind of city Bhopal is ? • Answer is ----------------- Lakes
20) Read the following sentence. • Bhopal is a City of Lakes. In this sentence Bhopal is a (place/ animal) place
21) Our school has visited five villages. In this sentence, Five shows the number of villages. It means it is used to tell the number of noun village. Village is a ( place / animal) place
22) Examine the following sentences. • He has little Intelligence. • He has no sense. • Intelligence & Sense is NOUN OR PRONOUN. NOUN
23) Beauty, sweetness, childhood, love, justice are nouns. They are the name of some qualities. Therefore, they have no material form. They cannot seen or touch. We can know of them only through our mind. These nouns are ----------------- ABSTRCT NOUNS
ABSTRCT NOUNS 24) Intelligence& sense are --------------------- nouns.
25) We may say that an adjective is used to describe an abstract noun.
26) Examine the following sentences: • He has lost ALL his wealth. • Bhavika ate NO bread. • Underlined adjectives describe : (abstract/ material) nouns. material
27) THUS, WE MAY DEFINIE: “A WORD USED WITH NOUN TO DESCRIBE OR POINT OUT, THE PERSON, ANIMAL, PLACE OR THING WHICH THE NOUN NAMES OR TO TELL THE NUMBER IS CALLLED -- --- -----------------. an adjective
28) Let us Examine following examples- • A brave boy, • An intelligent child, • A poor man, An ink pen, • A clever girl. • Ameritorious student • In above sentence the words -brave, poor, clever, intelligent, ink & meritorious are known as an ----------------- adjectives
29) If you ask the question ‘what kind of’?’ to the above examples, you will get the answer. For e.g. What kind of student is he? Answer is meritorious. It shows the quality of students.
30) Brave, poor, clever & ink show the quality of nouns. So these types of adjective are known as adjectives of Q------------ Quality
31) Let us Examine following examples: • A large city , • A metropolitan city , • The beautiful garden , • A crowded area • These adjectives describe the quality of (places / person). places
32) In the above examples, adjectives such as beautiful, marvelous, muddy, crowded &dangerous describe the quality of places. Therefore, these adjectives are • adjectives of --------- Quality
33) Let us Examine following examples: • BLACK belt , • WHITE paper, • CURLY hairs, • FAIR complexion • You know that these CAPATALISED words are adjectives. These adjectives describe things/person. (Choose the correct one) things
34) In above example adjectives such as black, white, curly& fair describe the quality of things. So these adjectives are also called adjectives of ----------------- Quality
35) THUS, WE MAY DEFINIE THAT ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY SHOW THE KIND OR QUALITY OF PERSONS OR THINGS OR PLACES. ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY ANSWER THE QUESTION “OF WHAT KIND?”
much 36) Let us Examine following examples: Radhika eats much sugar. How much sugar does Radhika eat? 37)Bhavika eats little sugar. How much sugar does Bhavika eat? 38)Madhulika eats some sugar. How much sugar does Madhulika eat? 39) Monika eats no sugar. How much sugar does Monika eat? little some no
40) The words MUCH, LITTLE, SOME, NO, & ALL show the (quality of noun / quantityof noun.) quality of noun
41) From above examples, we come to know that if we ask the question ‘HOW MUCH’ to the noun & if we get the answer than it is a (quantitative/ qualitative) adjective. quantitative
42) THUS, WE MAY DEFINE THAT QUANTITATIVE ADJECTIVE SHOWS Q----------- OF A THING QUANTITY
43) Read the following sentences: • Sushi ate some RICE • Prachi ate no BREAD. • Rushi has lost all his WEALTH. • CAPATALISED nouns are singular / plural. singular
Rice, bread ,wealth & sugar are known as ( material noun / non material noun) material noun
45) Examine following examples: • Rushi showed much PATIENCE. • Ruchi has little INTELLIGENCE. Capitalized nouns are called (abstract nouns/material nouns.) abstract nouns
46) Thus, we can conclude : a) Adjectives of quantity follow by(singular/plural) nouns. • Adjectives of quantity follow by(material / non-material)nouns. c) Adjectives of quantity follow by(abstract/ proper)nouns. singular material abstract