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Chapter 13

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Chapter 13

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  1. Chapter 13 Reflexive Pronouns and Possessives; Intensive Pronoun

  2. Reflexive Pronouns • Used ordinarily only in the predicate • Refer back to the subject • “Reflexive” derives from Latin verb reflectō, reflectere, reflexī, reflexum, to bend back

  3. English Examples • Reflexive Pronouns • I praised myself. • Cicero praised himself. • Personal Pronouns • You praised me. • Cicero praised him (Caesar).

  4. Declension of Reflexive Pronouns • Since reflexive pronouns referto the subject, they cannot bethe subject (exception, Chapter 25) • Therefore, they have no nominative case.

  5. Declension of Reflexive Pronouns • Forms of third person reflexive pronoun are easily recognizable because they are identical to singular of tū • Nominative is lacking and forms begin with s- rather than t- • Singular and Plural are identical • Reflexives “reflect” number/gender of subject

  6. Comparison of 1st and 2nd Person Reflexive and Personal Pronouns • Tutēlaudavisti. • Cicero tēlaudavit. • Noslaudavimusnōs. • Cicero nōslaudavit. • Ego mihilitterasscripsi. • Cicero mihilitterasscripsit.

  7. Comparison of 3rd Person Reflexive and Personal Pronouns • Cicero sēlaudavit. • Cicero eumlaudavit. • Romani sēlaudaverunt. • Romani eoslaudaverunt. • Puellasēservavit. • Puellaeamservavit.

  8. Reflexive Possessive Adjectives • First and Second persons are identical with regular possessives meus, tuus, noster, vester • Meumlibrumhabes. • You have my book. • Meumlibrumhabeo. • I have my own book.

  9. Reflexive Possessive Adjectives • Third person reflexive possessive, however, is a new word, suus, sua, suum • Easily declined like a first/second declension adjective • Must agree with noun it modifies in case, number, and gender • Its English translation must naturally reflect gender and number of subject

  10. Reflexive Possessive Adjectives • Virfiliumsuumlaudat. • The man praises his (own) son. • Feminafiliumsuumlaudat. • The woman praises her (own) son. • Viripatriamsuamlaudant. • The men praise their (own) country.

  11. Reflexive Possessive Adjectives • Finally, the reflexive possessive adjective suus, sua, suum must be carefully distinguished from the nonreflexive possessive genitives eius, eorum, earum (his/her, their), which refer to some person(s) other than the subject.

  12. Reflexive Possessive Adjectives • Cicero amicumsuumlaudavit. • Cicero praised his (own) friend. • Cicero amicumeiuslaudavit. • Cicero praised his (Caesar’s) friend.

  13. Intensive Pronoun • ipse, ipsa, ipsum follows declensional pattern of demonstratives in genitive and dative singular • Gen. ipsīus, ipsīus, ipsīus • Dat. ipsī, ipsī, ipsī • Otherwise, it is like magnus, -a, -um

  14. Intensive Pronoun • The Romans used the intensive pronoun to emphasize any noun or pronoun in either the subject or predicate of a sentence

  15. Intensive Pronoun • Cicero ipsemēlaudavit. • Cicero himself praised me. • Cicero mēipsumlaudavit. • Cicero praised me myself. • Ipseamicumeiuslaudavi. • I myself praised his friend. • Filiavobisipsislitterasscripsit. • Your daughter wrote a letter to you yourselves.