Training onSmallholder irrigation & value chains Strategies to enhance incomes S.C. Rajshekar Symbiotec Research Associates C-6-C, Gangotri Enclave, Alaknanda New Delhi 110 019 Tel: 91-11-26210633 Email: email@example.com
What is this about? • How does one enhance incomes of small and marginal farmers? • Gujarat – Junagadh & Dahod • Orissa – Nawarangapur & Sonepur • Eastern Uttar Pradesh – Padrauna & Gorakhpur
What should we do? What can you influence and where should one start Production Direct reach, distant markets Green revolution technologies Market Not taken off Increased risk
Costs, profits & risk In contrast, near Bangalore Cost of cultivation of Tomato is Rs..20,000 /acre. Yield is 12t-15t /acre Cost per kg is ~Rs..1.50 At Rs.2.00/kg net income is Rs.6000-7500/acre! How to increase productivity without significantly increasing risk
Crop Management • Cropping Pattern • Choice of crop • Crop timing • Motivation, food security, cash needs • Input management • Access to physical inputs • Seeds • Fertilisers • Pesticides • Water • Soil • Labour & Capital • Production knowledge • Right choice of inputs • Right use of inputs • Access to production knowledge • Cropping intensity • Crop diversification • Adoption of new crops • Multi-level cropping • Spreading risk by diversifying crop portfolio into grains, vegetables, orchards & trees • Output market • Location of markets • Type of market, primary, secondary • Price discovery mechanism, direct sale, auction • Transparency & market practices • Prior access to market information Conceptual framework
Cropping pattern • Junagadh • Ground nut – Vegetables • Sonepur • Paddy – vegetables • Find the area • Multi-crops (millets, pulses, cucurbits) - vegetables What do the 3 cropping patterns tell you?
Cropping pattern tells us about • Soil type • Land location • Irrigation – available or not • Climate • Market choices And what else???
Cropping pattern tells us about.. • Attitude • Way of life vs. commercial agriculture • Security vs. profits • Nature of security sought • Extent of integration into monetary economy
Typical cropping pattern • Sonepur - Paddy – vegetables • Tribal area - Multi-crops (millets, pulses, cucurbits) - vegetables • First food security (Paddy, millets, etc.) • Next cash needs (Pulses, vegetables, fruits, etc.) • Junagadh - Ground nut – Vegetables.
Crop portfolio planning • Increase cropping intensity • Spread risk • Provide long-term security Crop portfolio Food security Cash needs Long-term security Diversification into orchards Field bund plantations Revival of supplementary land based activities Existing crops – Immediate term New high value crops –medium term Identify new high value crops such as Stevia, Safed musli, etc. Introduce through a campaign Reduce risk by backing up with contracted buy-back with reputed firms vetted by IDE-I Select top 3 existing crops Document best practices Identify cost reduction and productivity enhancing measures Build a campaign to promote
Cost reduction & productivity enhancement • Proper crop management • Nursery for cotton? • Alternate furrow irrigation • Micro-drip micro-fertigation • Integrated Pest Management • Multilevel cropping • Increases production from unit area • Spreads risk
Climbers bottle gourds Banana Climbers flat beans Climbers flat beans, bitter gourd Multilevel cropping Lemon Cabbage lines Papaya Beans Tomato lines
Approaches to increasing income How to increase income Agri-extension Grow more = gain more But Risk more too! Ultra unconventional Less cost, less labour = gain more And More crops = less risk Unconventional response Grow more but less cost, gain more And More crops = less risk
Natural farming low cost, low labour, less risksame production • Natural farming is farming integrated with Nature, not in competition with it. • Grow more, but safeguard your asset too – the soil, water, seeds • The question to ask is what operation can I eliminate in growing a crop?