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ATN 2001 18 th September 2001 PETAL-II Operational Results The Controller and Aircrew Viewpoint

ATN 2001 18 th September 2001 PETAL-II Operational Results The Controller and Aircrew Viewpoint

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ATN 2001 18 th September 2001 PETAL-II Operational Results The Controller and Aircrew Viewpoint

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  1. ATN 2001 18th September 2001PETAL-II Operational ResultsThe Controller and Aircrew Viewpoint Martin McHUGHEUROCONTROL, DIS/ATD

  2. Activity:CPDLC Flights May 1998 – August 2001

  3. Activity:CPDLC Flights May 1998 – August 2001 TOTAL CPDLC Flights ATN: 3 FANS-1/A: 6690 NEAN: 1762 TOTAL: 8455 Represents less than 1% of Maastricht Movements

  4. Feedback:To 31st August 2001 No. of Questionnaires Completed No. of Interviews Conducted 152 65 CONTROLLERS FLIGHT CREWS NEAN 113 3 FLIGHT CREWS FANS1/A 158 4

  5. Feedback:To 31st August 2001 Questionnaires • Pertinent to users’ last experience of Datalink only, • System failures or ‘sluggish’ dialogues usually result in “Not Useful” response. • May consider datalink as “Useful” one day, “Not Useful” the next. Interviews • Record users’ overall experience with datalink. • Many “Not Useful” responses are qualified; eg. “With the current HMI”, “With the limited number of aircraft participating” etc.

  6. Feedback:To 31st August 2001 Datalink Useful Datalink Not Useful No Impact More Experience 7†(13%) 3†(5%) 3†(5%) 43†(77%) CONTROLLERS FLIGHT CREWS NEAN 90*(61%) 15*(10%) 19*(13%) 23*(16%) FLIGHT CREWS FANS1/A 36*(86%) 1*(2%) 3*(7%) 2*(5%) †Information extracted from Interviews only * Information extracted mainly from Questionnaires

  7. Controller Response:Value of Messages Transfer of Voice Comms Flight Level Clearance Flight Level Request Route Clearance Route Request Heading Clearance Vertical Rate Clearance Speed Clearance ‘Time’ Clearance ATC Mic Check SSR Clearance

  8. Aircrew Response:Value of Messages Transfer of Voice Comms Flight Level Clearance Flight Level Request Route Clearance Route Request Heading Clearance Vertical Rate Clearance Speed Clearance ‘Time’ Clearance ATC Mic Check SSR Clearance

  9. Response:Value of Messages - Comparison Transfer of Voice Comms Flight Level Clearance Flight Level Request Route Clearance Route Request Heading Clearance Vertical Rate Clearance Speed Clearance ‘Time’ Clearance ATC Mic Check SSR Clearance

  10. Feedback:Actual usage of Messages to 31 Aug 01 Transfer of Voice Comms [uM117] Flight Level Clearance [uM19, 20 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 148] Flight Level Request [dM6, 9, 10] Route Clearance [uM64, 74, 82] Route Request [dM22, 27] Heading Clearance [uM94, 96, 190, 215] SSR Clearance [uM123, 179] ATC Mic Check [uM157] Speed Clearance [uM55, 106, 107, 108, 109, 116, 222] Vertical Rate Clearance [uM171, 172, 173, 174] ‘Time’ Clearance [uM51, 52, 53, 54]

  11. Uplink/Downlink Used Message Useful - Aircrew Message Useful - Controllers Feedback:Comparison – Actual usage / Value Transfer of Voice Comms [uM117] Flight Level Clearance [uM19, 20 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 148] Flight Level Request [dM6, 9, 10] Route Clearance [uM64, 74, 82] Route Request [dM22, 27] Heading Clearance [uM94, 96, 190, 215] SSR Clearance [uM123, 179] ATC Mic Check [uM157] Speed Clearance [uM55, 106, 107, 108, 109, 116, 222] Vertical Rate Clearance [uM171, 172, 173, 174] ‘Time’ Clearance [uM51, 52, 53, 54]

  12. Feedback: Usage – Comparison with Oceanic Transfer of Voice Comms [uM117] Flight Level Clearance [uM19, 20 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 148] Route Clearance [uM64, 74, 82] Heading Clearance [uM94, 96, 190, 215] SSR Clearance [uM123, 179] ATC Mic Check [uM157] Speed Clearance [uM55, 106, 107, 108, 109, 116, 222] Vertical Rate Clearance [uM171, 172, 173, 174] ‘Time’ Clearance [uM51, 52, 53, 54] NOTE: Oceanic usage accumulated over an 18 month period

  13. Controller Response:Opinion Overall Positive Aspects • Datalink messages reduce instances of callsign confusion and incorrect readbacks / need to repeat messages (eg. 8.33MHz frequency spacing) • Ability to delegate / task share routine tasks (transfers, SSR code allocations, route clearances) to Co-ordinator / Assistant. • Datalink communication has potential for task automation (eg. Automatic uplinking of new SSR codes). • Provides an alternate / additional means of air/ground communication.

  14. Controller Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • System reliability needs to be improved. • Error message received after uplinked clearance. • Message time-outs. • No response from the flight deck. Controllers Perception of Approximate Datalink Failure Rate 5% or Less 10% 20% 30% 50% 16†(38%) 5†(12%) 10†(24%) 10†(24%) 1†(2%) †Information extracted from Interviews only

  15. Controller Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • System reliability needs to be improved. • Speed of datalink dialogues. • Failed Dialogues (No receipt or response) • Flight crew inexperience • However, dialogues are completed quickly enough for non time-critical clearances (Transfers, SSR etc) †Information extracted from Questionnaires and Interviews Speed of Datalink Dialogues Quick Enough NOT Quick Enough Not Sure 112†(62%) 60†(33%) 10†(5%)

  16. Controller Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • System reliability needs to be improved. • Speed of datalink dialogues. • Datalink inputs are cumbersome, not instinctive and take too long – Current HMI. • For example, …………

  17. Controller Response:Datalink Inputs Synthetic Dynamic Display Executive Control Message Flight Data Message Touch Input Device

  18. Controller Response:Datalink Inputs “SQUAWK IDENT” 1 4 TID Inputs 4

  19. Controller Response:Datalink Inputs “CROSS [position] BETWEEN [time] AND [time]” 1 15 TID Inputs 15

  20. Controller Response:Datalink Inputs Enhanced Controller HMI for CPDLC 1 2 3 Controller’s attention is not drawn away from the radar display Mouse Driven Selectable Menus On-Screen Message Boxes

  21. Controller Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • Using datalink increases controller workload. • Current HMI too complex - 34 (20%) • Of 69 controllers specifically questioned, 56 (81%) considered that using datalink either decreased or had no impact on the workload of other sector team members Controllers Workload Increased Decreased †Information extracted from Questionnaires and Interviews No Impact Executive Controller 6†(4%) 55†(32%) 110†(64%) Co-ordinator / Assistant 37†(39%) 5†(5%) 54†(56%)

  22. Controller Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • System reliability needs to be improved. • Speed of datalink dialogues. • Datalink inputs are cumbersome, not instinctive and take too long – Current HMI. • Using datalink increases controller workload. • Lack of familiarity with equipment and procedures. (Less than 1% of traffic currently handled by Maastricht UAC is datalink capable)

  23. Aircrew Response:Opinion Overall Positive Aspects • The precise nature of datalink reduces the likelihood of misunderstandings (eg regional dialects). • Widespread acceptance (and crew experience) of CPDLC as an air/ground communications medium. • Safety benefits apparent (eg B777 HMI).

  24. Aircrew Response:B777 HMI – Safety Benefits Corresponding uplinked value input into appropriate end system Uplink Clearance Accepted (“Wilco” Downlinked)

  25. Aircrew Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • The requirement for R/T confirmation of some* datalink clearances offsets some benefits. * (the requirement for R/T confirmation of Transfer and SSR clearances was removed from 9th August 2001)

  26. Aircrew Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • The requirement for R/T confirmation of some* datalink clearances offsets some benefits. • NEAN Equipped Aircraft – An aural alert for incoming datalink messages required.

  27. Aircrew Response:NEAN HMI – Message Alert MMI5000 Datalink Message Received

  28. Aircrew Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • The requirement for R/T confirmation of some* datalink clearances offsets some benefits. • NEAN Equipped Aircraft – An aural alert for incoming datalink messages required. • NEAN Equipped Aircraft – An additional HMI, or re-positioning of existing HMI, necessary.

  29. Aircrew Response:NEAN – Position of HMI DC-9 Flight Deck NEAN MMI5000

  30. Aircrew Response:NEAN – Position of HMI B747-200 Flight Deck NEAN MMI5000

  31. OPEN 2119Z FROM EDYY CTL CLB TO & MAINTFL310 *UNABLE STBY* <OTHER WILCO* Aircrew Response:FANS-A – Position of HMI A330/340 Flight Deck FANS-A ATC COMM

  32. Aircrew Response:Opinion Overall Negative Aspects • The requirement for R/T confirmation of some* datalink clearances offsets some benefits. • NEAN Equipped Aircraft – An aural alert for incoming datalink messages required. • NEAN Equipped Aircraft – An additional HMI, or re-positioning of existing HMI, necessary. • FANS Equipped Aircraft – Tone of aural alerting for incoming messages is too similar to other alerts (cabin call, SELCAL).

  33. User Response:Summary Controller Response Positive Aspects • Reduces callsign confusion and incorrect readbacks / need to repeat messages. • Ability to delegate / task share routine tasks. • Potential for task automation. • Provides an alternate / additional means of a/g comms. Controller Response Negative Aspects • System reliability needs to be improved. • Speed of datalink dialogues. • Datalink inputs too cumbersome. • Increase in controller workload. • Lack of familiarity with equipment and procedures.

  34. User Response:Summary Aircrew Response Positive Aspects • Reduces likelihood of misunderstandings. • Many crews experienced in using CPDLC for a/g comms. • Safety benefits apparent (eg B777 HMI). Aircrew Response Negative Aspects • Requirement for R/T confirmation offsets some benefits. • Aural alert for incoming datalink messages required (NEAN). • Additional or re-positioned HMI necessary (NEAN). • More distinct tone for aural alert necessary (FANS).

  35. Issues Arising:Concatenated Messages • Observation: Although the majority of controllers and flight crews consider that the ability to combine datalink messages to be useful, a number of important issues have been identified: • Combinations leading to ambiguous or potentially conflicting clearances should be ruled out. • Combinations leading to conditional clearances (e.g. at [position] climb to [level]) should be avoided. • Airborne HMI designs should ensure that all parts of the clearance are apparent to the aircrew.

  36. ATC LOG 1 / 1 0955Z NEW  CAN YOU ACCEPT FL35 . . > <INDEX ERASE LOG> - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Issues Arising:Concatenated Messages Reading a new uplink clearance on the ATC Log page, the pilot is presented with a truncated message. This could result in an instruction …………

  37. / CAN YOU ACCEPT FL350 AT 10N57 <STANDBY <REJECT ACCEPT> - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - <PRINTLOG> 0955z ATC UPLINK 1 / 1 STATUS OPEN Issues Arising:Concatenated Messages ………… being initiated before the controller intended.

  38. Issues Arising:Concatenated Messages • Recommendations (for implementation): 1) Combining messages is a useful operational facility, and should be provided. 2) Methods of satisfying the issues identified should be included. 3) This subject should continue to be monitored until such time that the question of message concatenation is finally resolved.

  39. Issues Arising:uM72: “Resume Own Navigation" • Problem: 1) Flight crews view this message as ‘incomplete’ as there is no supplementary “..to [position]” element on which to base the instruction. • Short Term Fix: 1) Use uM74: “Proceed Direct to [position]” in place of uM72. 2) uM72 removed from Maastricht operational message set.

  40. Issues Arising:uM157 – “Check Stuck Mic [freq]” • Problem: uM157 is sent to ALL aircraft in CPDLC contact with the Centre concerned – Instruction can be misinterpreted by crews and controllers operating on other frequencies. Eg: Some pilots have interpreted this as an instruction to contact the controller on the stated frequency.

  41. Issues Arising:uM157 – “Check Stuck Mic [freq]” • Short term Fix: 1) Flight crew and controller training and awareness. 2) uM157 to be broadcast ONLY to those aircraft under the control of the triggering sector. • Longer Term: 1) Review message phraseology. 2) Review ground system fix to filter the broadcast uplink based on the frequency used.

  42. Any Questions? Martin McHUGH Danny DAEMSMAASTRICHT UAC Andy FRYAMERICAN AIRLINES Frank CHESHIREAMERICAN AIRLINES