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Endometriosis

Endometriosis

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Endometriosis

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  1. Endometriosis Sanja Načinović Mentor: A. Žmegač Horvat

  2. Definition • endometrial-like cells appear in areas outside the uterine cavity • endometrial-like cells are influenced by hormonal changes

  3. Epidemiology • typically seen during the reproductive years • occurs in roughly 5-10% of women

  4. Sings and symptoms

  5. Infertility • link between infertility and endometriosis remains enigmatic

  6. Other symptoms • constipation • chronic fatigue • mild to severe fever • headaches • depression • hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) • anxiety

  7. Causes • the exact cause of endometriosis remains unknown • Retrograde menstruation • Coelomic metaplasia • Genetics • Transplantation • Environment

  8. How to diagnose it? • laparotomy • laparoscopy • ultrasound

  9. Co-morbidity • ovarian cancer • non-Hodgkin's lymphoma • leiomyoma • autoimmune disorders • hypothyroidism

  10. Possible locations • ovaries • fallopian tubes • back of the uterus • front of the uterus • uterine ligaments • pelvic and back wall • intestines • urinary bladder and ureters

  11. Staging • Stage I (minimal) • Stage II (mild) • Stage III (moderate) • Stage IV (severe)

  12. Markers • high levels of estrogen • low levels of progesterone • antigen C-125

  13. Treatments • hormonal medications - progestins, oral contraceptives, Danazol, aromatase inhibitors • other medications - NSAID, Diclofenac

  14. surgery- excision, hysterectomy, presacral neurectomy