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Sheet-Metal Forming

Sheet-Metal Forming

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Sheet-Metal Forming

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  1. Sheet-Metal Forming

  2. Introduction • Sheet metal forming is a process that materials undergo permanent deformation by cold forming to produce a variety of complex three dimensional shapes. • The process is carried out in the plane of sheet by tensile forces with high ratio of surface area to thickness. • Friction conditions at the tool-metal interface are very important and controlled by press conditions, lubrication, tool material and surface condition, and strip surface condition.

  3. Classification of sheet metal parts (based on contour) 1) Singly curved parts 2) Contoured flanged parts, i.e., parts with stretch flanges and shrink flanges. 3) Curved sections. 4) Deep-recessed parts, i.e., cups and boxes with either vertical or sloping walls. 5) Shallow-recessed parts, i.e., dish-shaped, beaded, embossed and corrugated parts.

  4. Classification of sheet metal forming (based on operations) • Shearing • Blanking • Punching • Bending • Stamping • Deep drawing • Embossing • Spinning • Roll Forming

  5. Forming machines Press A press is a machine used for performing most of the cold working operations. • Rigid Machine Frame • Press Tools • Ram • Power Source and Mechanism • Die Assy • Press Accessories

  6. Types of Press • Source of Power • Manual Press • Mechanical Press • Hydraulic Press • Pneumatic Press

  7. Mechanical presses • energy stored in a flywheel is transferred to the movable slide on the down stroke of the press. • quick - acting , short stroke. Hydraulic presses • slower - acting, longer stroke.

  8. 2.Actions of presses According to number of slides, which can be operated independently of each other. 1) Single - action press - one slide - vertical direction 2) Double - action press - two slides - the second action is used to operated the hold-down, which prevents wrinkling in deep drawing. 3) Triple - action press - two actions above the die, one action below

  9. 3. Method of transmitting power to ram • Crank shaft and connecting rod system • Cam • Eccentric • Toggle joint • Knuckle joint • Rack and Pinion • Screw • Gears

  10. 4. Position of the Ram • Vertical • Inclined 5. Use Blanking press, embossing press, Drawing press etc.

  11. 6. Design of Frame 7. Capacity or Size

  12. Die Assembly • Die Block • Die retainer & Die shoe • Stripper • Punch • Punch retainer & Punch pad • Pressure Plate • Punch Holder • Guide Pillars • Stock Guide

  13. Classification of Die • Single Operation Die • Cutting Die • Forming Die • Multi Operation Die • Compound Die • Progressive Die • Transfer Die

  14. Single Operation Die Cutting Die Forming Die

  15. Single Operation Die

  16. Multi Operation Die Compound Die

  17. Multi Operation Die Progressive Die • Punches and dies are designed so that successive stages in the forming of the part are carried out in the same die on each stroke of the press. • The strip is fed from left to right. • The first punch is to make the hole of the washer. • The washer is then blanked from the strip. • The punch A is piercing the hole for the next washer.

  18. Theory of Shearing the Metal

  19. Theory of Shearing the Metal

  20. Theory of Shearing the Metal

  21. Effect of Clearence

  22. Bending Process

  23. Bending Process • A process by which a straight length is transformed into a curved length. • Produce channels, drums, tanks.

  24. Bending Operation V-Die Bending

  25. Punch Press Bends

  26. Roll Forming

  27. Roll Bending

  28. Bending in sliding die machines

  29. Press Brake Forming • A single action press with a very long narrow bed. • Used to form long, straight bends in pieces such as channels and corrugated sheets.

  30. Press Brake Forming • A single action press with a very long narrow bed. • Used to form long, straight bends in pieces such as channels and corrugated sheets.

  31. Beading

  32. Method of Bending • Three-roll bender: • Wiper-type bender: • Wrap forming:

  33. Wiper-type bender:

  34. Definition of terms used in bending

  35. Spring Back • Springback - the elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools • To compensate with the unbending action of the springback, the metal should be slightly overbent.

  36. Rubber Forming

  37. Types of Stretch Forming