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The Reproductive System

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  1. The Reproductive System 山东大学医学院 解剖教研室 李振华

  2. Composition Internal genital organ • Gonads (sex glands)-manufacture the sex cells an secrete the sex hormones. • Genital ducts –transport the sex cells from the site of production into site fertilization • Accessory glands-secrete the fluid External genital organ

  3. The Male Reproduce System男性生殖系统

  4. Male internal genital organs Gonad –testis 睾丸 • Paired, smooth, ovoid male reproductive organ, slightly flattened anteroposteriorly • Located in scrotum • Has a tough fibrous coat, the tunica albuginea, this sends numerous fibrous septules into the gland, dividing it into testicular lobules that contain the contorted seminiferous tubules. Posteriorly the tubules form the rete testis and the efferent ducts, and open into the head of the epididymis • Produces sperm and secretes androgens

  5. Genital ducts Epididymis 附睾 • Comma-shaped, with head, body and tail of epididymis • Located on superior extremity and posterolateral aspect of testis • Contains tortuous canal that extends from testis to ductus (vas) deferens in spermatic cord • Function – the site of accumulation and storage of sperm

  6. Ductus deferens输精管 • Muscular tube that transports sperm form epididymis to ejaculatory duct • Four part: • Testicular part 睾丸部 -extends form the tail of epididymis to the superior extremity of testis • Spermatic part 精索部 -extends form superior extremity of testis to the superficial inguinal ring, the place where the vasectomy is performed • Inguinal part 腹股沟部 -extends form superficial to deep inguinal rings • Pelvic part 盆部 -crosses the obturator neurovascular bundle and the ureter to reach the base of bladder, terminal part dilates, forming ampulla ductus deferentis

  7. Spermatic cord精索 • Extends from the superior extremity of testis to the deep inguinal ring • Contens of the spermatic cord comprise: • Ductus deferend • Testicular and deferential arteries • Pampiniform plexus 蔓状静脉丛 • Nerves and lymphatics • Vestige of vagina process • These structures are bound together by connective tissue and enclosed by the internal spermatic fascia, cremaster and external spermatic fascia

  8. Vasectomy

  9. Ejaculatory duct射精管 • Formed by union of distal portion ductus deferens and duct of seminal vesicle • Passes through the upper part of prostate and opens into the prostatic part of urethra

  10. Accessory glands Seminal vesicle 精囊 • Paired sacculated, coiled glands • Secrete part of seminal fluid • Located on posterior surface of bladder, lateral to ampulla ductus deferentis

  11. Prostate 前列腺 • Lies behind pubic symphysis, between neck of bladder and urogenital diaphragm • Shape • Chestnut-shaped organ • Base • Apex • Anterior surfaces • Posterior surfaces- prostatic sulcus 前列腺沟 • Contains of five lobes • Anterior lobe • Middle lobe • Posterior lobe • Right and left lobes • Enclosed by a thin inner fibrous capsule (true capsule) and a strong outer envelope of pelvic fascia

  12. Bulbourethral gland尿道球腺 -two small pea-shaped glands, located in the deep transverse muscle of perineum, opens into bulb of urethrartery

  13. External genital organs Scrotum 阴囊 • Pouch of thin skin lying below the root of the penis • Divided into two haves by septum of scrotum, contains testes and their ducts • Deep to skin is dartos coat 肉膜, a connective tissue layer that contains many smooth muscle fibers which contracts in response to cold, pulling the testes closer to the body and wrinkling the skin

  14. Parietal peritoneum Transvers fascia Trasversus abdominis Obliquus internus abdominis Aponeurosis of obliquus externus abdominis External spermatic fascia 精索外筋膜 Parietal layer Visceral layer Cremastter 提睾肌 Internal spermatic fascia 精索内筋膜 Vaginal cavity Tunica vaginalis of testis 睾丸鞘膜

  15. Penis 阴茎 • Consists of the root, body and glans penis • Contains • Two cavernous body of penis 阴茎海绵体 • A cavernous body of urethra 尿道海绵体 • Skin-thin and loose • Prepuce of penis 阴茎包皮 • Frenulum of prepuce 包皮系带

  16. Male urethra 男性尿道 Three parts • Prostatic part 前列腺部 -lies within the prostate and is the widest and most dilatable portion of urethra. • Membranous part膜部 –lies within the urogenital diaphragm surround by the sphincter of urethra • Cavernous part 海绵体部-transverse the length of cavernous body of urethra Posterior urethra-prostatic part and membranous part Anterior urethra –-cavernous part

  17. Within prostatic part • Urethral ridge 尿道嵴 • Prostatic utricle 前列腺小囊 • The orifices of the ejaculatory ducts

  18. Three constrictions • At the internal urethral orifice • At the membranous part • At the external orifice of urethra Three enlarged parts • At prostatic part • At bulb of urethra • At navicular fossa of urethra

  19. Two curvatures • Subpubic curvature耻骨下弯-concave upward • Prepubic curvature 耻骨前弯-concave downward

  20. The Female Genital Organs

  21. Female internal genital organs

  22. Ovary 卵巢 Position-lies in the ovarian fossa in the angle between the internal and external iliac vessels on the lateral pelvic wall. Shape-an ovoid organ • Superior pole • Inferior pole • Anterior border • Mesovarian border 系膜缘 • Hilum of ovary卵巢门 • Posterior border-free border • Two surfaces-medial and lateral

  23. Supporting structures of ovary • Suspensory ligament of ovary 卵巢悬韧带 • Proper ligament of ovary 卵巢固有韧带 Produce ova and secrete estrogens

  24. Uterine tube 输卵管 General features • About 10cm long • Located at upper edge of broad ligament of uterus between the two layers

  25. Four parts • Infundibulum of uterine tube输卵管漏斗 • Fimbriae of uterine tube 输卵管伞 • ovarian fimbriartery 卵巢伞 • Ampulla of uterine tube输卵管壶腹-relatively wide, tortuous, longst part, thin walls; fertilization of the ovum takes placein its complex lumen

  26. Isthmus of uterine tube输卵管峡 -straight and narrow portion, thick walls, it is the place where the tubal ligation is performed usually • Uterine part 子宫部 -narrowest part, pierces uterine wall and opens into cavity of uterus by uterine orifice of uterine tube

  27. Uterus 子宫 General features-muscular pear-shaped organ Three parts • Fundus of uterus 子宫底 • Body of uterus 子宫体 • Neck of uterus 子宫颈 • Vaginalparts of cervix 子宫颈阴道部 • Supravaginal parts of cervix 子宫颈阴道上部 • Isthmus of uterus子宫峡 -short constricted part, transition between the body and the neck of uterus, taken up by body of uterus during pregnancy, thus “lower uterine segment”

  28. Interior cavity • Cavity of uterus 子宫腔-the cavity of body of uterus, is triangular in coronal section • Canal of cervix of uterus 子宫颈管-the cavity of the neck, is spindle-shaped, opens into the vagina at the orifice of uterus子宫口

  29. Position • Lies in the center of the pelvic catity, between bladder, anteriorly, and rectum, posteriorly, usually it is anteversion and anteflexion • Anteversion 前倾 -axis of uterus at 90o with that of vagina • Anteflexion 前屈 -axis of body of uterus is bent forward with that of the cervix forming an angle of about 170o (body of uterus is bent slightly forward at isthmus) 90o 170o

  30. Supports of uterus • Pelvic diaphragm • Surrounding organs : vagina and bladder • Ligaments • Broad ligament of uterus 子宫阔韧带 • Round ligament of uterus 子宫圆韧带 -maintain anteverted position of fundus • Cardinal ligament of uterus 子宫主韧带 • Uterosacral ligament of uterus 骶子宫韧带

  31. Broad ligament of uterus 子宫阔韧带 • Mesosalpinx for the uterine tubes 输卵管系膜 • Mesometrium for the ovary 卵巢系膜 • Mesovarium 子宫系膜

  32. Cardinal ligament of uterus 子宫主韧带 -confer lateral stability to cervical region • Uterosacral ligament of uterus 骶子宫韧带 -maintain body of uterus in anteverted position.

  33. Vagina 阴道 • Flattened fibromuscular tube, about 8~9cm long • Extends upward and backward from vestibule to uterus • Fornix of vagina 阴道穹 • Formed between cervix and walls of vagina • Posterior fornix deepest and larger than either anterior or lateral fornices, and related to the rectouterine pouch

  34. Accessory gland • Great vestibular gland 前庭大腺 • On either side of vaginal orifice • Open into vestibule at orifice of vagina

  35. Female external genital organs • Mons pubis 阴阜 • Greater lips of pudendum 大阴唇 • Lesser lips of pudendum 小阴唇 • Vaginal vestibule 阴道前庭 • Clitoris 阴蒂 • Bulb of vestibule 前庭球