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Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK & HB

Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK & HB

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Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK & HB

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  1. Biological control for weeds in Ireland with reference to JK & HB Dick Shaw & Rob Tanner- CABI

  2. Format • Brief introduction to CABI and invasives • Biocontrol – types, history and examples • Azolla weevil • Japanese knotweed: and the psyllid • Himalayan Balsam • Floating Pennywort

  3. What/who is CABI? • Formerly the Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux International, Origins back to 1910. • UN-Treaty level, not-for profit intergovernmental organisation owned by its 45 member countries • CABI includes the former International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC) and 3 other institutes

  4. CABI centre CABI member country Our member countries and centres

  5. Our mission • CABI improves people’s lives worldwide by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE

  6. CABI Publishing • Abstracts – environment, agriculture, tourism • 7 million abstracts (10,000 free text added/yr) • Books - 60 new titles/year • Invasive Species Compendium >1,000 species included so far (hopefully open access if final funding can be found) • £20 million turnover • Only 5% of our income is from member contributions (“core funding”)

  7. IAS CBD Commitments • PREVENT, ERADICATE or CONTROL • What about the really big problems we already have?

  8. Plants are often the worst invaders

  9. What is Biological Control?

  10. Broom in New Zealand

  11. 3 Categories of Biological Control Conservation - Protection and maintenance of existing Natural Enemies (NEs) Inundative - a.k.a the “Mycoherbicide Approach” using native pathogens for repeated application Classical - Using Co-evolved (highly specific) NEs from the area of origin of the plant to provide self-sustaining control after a single release.

  12. Rhododendron ponticum

  13. Buddleia pathogens

  14. What is Classsical Biological Control?

  15. NOT The Cane Toad

  16. Prickly pear in Australia 50 million hectares of it in New South Wales

  17. Before

  18. After

  19. Rubber vine weed

  20. Over 1,000 releases of biocontrol agents around the world • >350 agents against 133 target weeds • A century of research • Any non-target effects are predictable by the vigorous safety testing • An International code of conduct • 8 examples of “non-target” effects (7 of which predicted or predictable with current approaches) Is It Safe?

  21. EU Activity

  22. Stenopelmus rufinasus No stranger to biocontrol

  23. Before

  24. After

  25. Bracken P. aquilinum C. cinsigna tested against 71 spp. • P. angularis tested against 54 spp.

  26. Symptoms of the Fungal Pathogen Phloeospora heraclei Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)

  27. “The site is a challenge. We have identified unexploded wartime bombs and Japanese knotweed……….. the bombs we can deal with” Head of London Development Agency on the subject of the 2012 Olympic site

  28. Fallopia japonicavar. japonica Bailey syn. Reynoutria japonica Houttuyn syn. Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc. F. sachalinensis(Giant knotweed) F. x bohemica(hybrid) Japanese knotweed(s) Courtesy of Japanese kntoweed manual Child & Wade

  29. Phase 2 sponsors AAFC BC

  30. Very wide range of “Japanese knotweeds” in Japan. Often hard to tell apart.

  31. Many insects feeding on most parts 186 species of phytophagous arthropod recorded from Japanese knotweed in Japan. Remarkably only one generalist root feeder of note

  32. Photo – Prof K. Yano

  33. Field observations

  34. The Japanese team in their temperate glasshouse with stock plants

  35. Pathogens

  36. Mycosphaerella polygoni-cuspidati Leafspot fungus- so common that it is included in the Flora of Japan

  37. 40㎛ Life cycle • Microcyclic or reduced life cycle - only functional spores are spermatia and ascospores • Primary source of infection is ascospores, no anamorph or macroconidial stage found • No ascomata produced in vivo or in vitro despite varied humidity regimes+agar media trials • Mycelial infection found to be comparable in lab

  38. Macro/microscopic analysis F. Conollyana P. maritimum F.japonica • 60 plant spp tested (mainly mycelium) • no symptoms on F. sachalinensis & F. compacta • 21 N. American species tested to some degree – still promising F x bohemica

  39. Insects

  40. DISMISSED Endoclyta excrescens