Ivan IV (aka: Ivan the Terrible) • Became Grand Prince of Moscow at age 3 (1533) • So who actually did the ruling? Boyars. • Took the thrown as the Tsar of All Russia in 1547 • Sounds fancy, doesn’t it? He meant for it to. • For the first part of his reign, he was Ivan the Relatively Decent. • Married Anastasia Romanova, which displeased the boyars • Significant reforms • Established a representative system to seek advice and input • Developed a legal code designed to eliminate corruption • Reorganized the military (reduced importance of social standing and replaced it with system based on rank, merit, and service) • The Council of Hundred Chapters (designed to regulate the Orthodox Church)
Ivan the Terrible at War • Launched expansionist attacks against neighbors • Dramatically expanded territory in the East • Failures in Expansion – Let’s go to the map • Livonia (modern-day Estonia and Latvia) • Conflict with the Crimean Tatars • Failures led to defection • Ivan gets paranoid (btw, historians think he might have been mentally ill) • Are the boyars plotting against him because he limited their power?! • Why won’t they swear allegiance to his son, Dmitrii?! • Why were the circumstances of his wife’s death so mysterious?!
The Oprichnina (1565-1572) • Ivan (now he’s Terrible) fled Moscow in 1564 and threw a tantrum • Abdicated power • Denounced boyars • Stole money from the treasury • Broke with the Orthodox church • Said he’d only come back if they let him create an Oprichnina (separate government structure that he alone would control) • In 1565, he gets his own kindgom • Comprised initially of Moscow • Later more land is added
The Oprichniki • Army of political police • Absolute allegiance to Ivan • Are you ready for the coolest detail? • Cloaked entirely in black and rode only black steeds • What did they do? • Destroyed enemies • Carried out Ivan’s political will • Purged his kingdom of treasonous nobles
Ivan the Terrible: The Aftermath • Tortured, exiled, and executed tens of thousands of Russians • Ravaged Russia’s social structure • Devastated its economy • Created a power vacuum (killed or exiled so many powerful families) • Extensive property damage • Looting and random land confiscation discouraged agriculture • Famine • Distrust of the tsar
Aftermath Continued • What happened to Ivan V? • Ivan the Terrible died in 1584 • His second son, Theodore took the throne • The problem with Theodore? • “Feeble in both intellect and body.”
Tsar Theodore (1557-1598) • Ruled from 1584-1598. • He was weak and obsessed with religious ceremony.
Boris Gudunov • 1551 – 1605 • Ruled as regent from1598 – 1605 • His sister married the tsar • Eliminated his enemies in royal council of advisors
Boris Gudunov, Continued • Secured Russia’s prominence in the Orthodox Church • Got permission from the Patriarch of Constantinople to create a separate Patriarch of Moscow • Nice way to kiss up to the pious Theodore • Prince Dmitrii killed – foul play suspected. Why? • He was nine and his throat was slit. • But it meant that Theodore had no heirs • Gudunov kindly volunteered to step in and take care of the throne for a while
The Time of Troubles (1598 – 1613) • What made them so troubling? • Famine (killed off 1/3 of Russian population) • Economic crisis • “Peasant flight” (side note: this could’ve been better phrased) • A succession crisis • No living biological heir to the throne • Numerous challenges to Gudunov’s rule • The Series of Faux Dmitriis • Poland found itself a faux Dmitrii and tried to install him as a puppet Tsar under its control • Faux Polish Dmitrii was in power briefly when Gudunov died but was put to death by PrinchVasiliShuisky
The End of the Troubles • Polish and Swedish forces expelled in the winter of 1612 • ZemskiiSobor (early form of parliament) • Formed to establish a legitimate government • Elected Michael Romanov (and where did he come from?)
Overland Empire: Two Major Themes • Maintaining authority over three Ds • Diverse population • Diffuse population • Distant population • Cyclical patterns • Reform, expansion, and development • Reactionary policies, undermined progress
After Tsar Alexis Died (reigned from 1645 -1676) Mary (1648 – 1669) Natalie (1671 – 1676) Peter the (not yet) Great • Two male heirs with Alexis • And a daughter, Sophia • Thedore • Ruled from 1676 – 1682 and died w/o an heir • Ivan • Sickly but smart “Hmm… What should we do now?” thought the boyars. “Oh, I know! Let’s make them co-tsars! That certainly won’t end in conflict! “
It Ended in Conflict. • The set-up • Peter and Ivan were co-tsars • Sophia was to act as regent until the boys could take over • Sophia was a boss • Marginalized her brothers (especially Peter) • Recruited the streltsy (military/guardsmen) to her side • Successes • Relaxed penalties on flying peasants • Founded Russia’s first institution of higher learning • Strengthened the merchant classes • Secured parts of Ukraine for Russia and staved off Turkish aggression
Sophia’s Regency (1682 – 1689) • Boyars opposed her reign • Peter the (still not) Great wanted to be the ruler now • Sophia attempted a coup in 1689 but the military backed her brothers • Peter took over with Ivan as the nominal co-tsar
Peter the Great (1672 – 1725) • He was very tall. • Worked his way up through the Russian military • MVT • Physically strong • Knew how to use the military • Smart
Why He Was Great • Made the military swear allegiance to Russia, not to him • Streamlined the military • Sought to make Russia a maritime power (won access to the Black Sea) • Improved education (for the nobility and government officials), especially in science • Chose advisors based on experience not social status • Strengthened ties with Europe
European Influences NO MORE BEARDS!!!!! • From Holland – Shipbuilding • From England – City planning • Sartorial Shifts • No more bulky, Byzantine robes • Fitted western clothes • No more arranged marriages • Moved Russia to a more Julian calendar • Most important change of all…
Meanwhile, Back in Russia Coup Attempt The Great Northern War 1700 – 1721 Sought to capture Swedish territory and strengthen access to the Baltic Sea Why did he care about that? • 1698 coup attempt by Sophia and the streltsy • His name had “Great” in it, so what do you think happened? • Shut it down.
The Great Northern War – Major Events • Lost at the Battle of Narva but founded St. Petersburg while recovering from the loss • Russia seized parts of Finland and its territories • Swedes surrendered in 1721 (Treaty of Nystadt) • Russia gave back Finland and paid the Swedes 2 million kronar • Russia secured Ingria, Livonia (what was Livonia, again?), and Karelia
More Reforms from Peter the Great • Military • Instituted a draft (1 of every 75 peasants) • Landed gentry had to enlist • Government • Made himself a “servant of the state” rather than being above the law • Created the Senate • Twelve Colleges – like Departments in the U.S. govt • Granted a modicum of autonomy to local authorities • Religion • Patriarch replaced by the Holy Synod (a committee of leaders supervised by a secular official) • First time that the State supplanted the authority of the Church • Limited church’s ability to acquire land and control its wealth • Streamlined the tax code • Ended the legal distinction between serfs and slaves • Why? He could tax serfs but not slaves.
Peter: How Great Was He? • What was the first theme of Imperial Russia? • The majority of the reforms impacted the noblemen, gentry, and merchants. • Lead to even more stark class divisions • Contrast between Westernized, educated elites and traditionalist peasants
Daddy Issues and a Succession Crisis • Alexei (born 1690) was largely ignored by his father • Developed animosity, resentment, etc. towards his father AND his father’s programs • 1715 – Flees Russia after not pledging loyalty to Peter • 1718 – Comes back with a pardon but plans a coup • Still 1718 – Sentenced to death for treason and dies in jail • Peter didn’t name a successor • Subsequent power vacuum undermined his reforms • General chaos and tumult followed
Four Decades of Madness!!! Six Monarchs Five Military Conflicts With Austria against France With Austria against Turkey Against Sweden The War of Austrian Succession With Austria, France, Sweden, and Saxony against Prussia, Britain, and Hanover (The Seven Years’ War) • It’s not worth it for you to memorize them. • Ivan VI was jailed as an infant and died in prison (1740 – 1741)
Greatness Returns, Lady-Style • Catherine the Great (1729 – 1796) • Born a minor German princess • Very well educated, refined, etc. • 1744 – Came to Russia to marry Peter the Great’s grandson, Peter III • 1762 – Peter III assassinated in a coup shortly after taking the throne • Catherine’s role in the coup • She took the throne and managed to hold on to it, despite attempts to remove her
Adjectives that Describe Catherine • Intelligent • Cunning • Pragmatic • Courageous • Ambitious • When conflicted, she acted in her own best interest.
A Brief Discussion of The Enlightenment • What was it? • When was it? • Purpose: • Reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith, etc.) • Advance knowledge through science. • Promote science and intellectual interchange • Oppose superstition, intolerance and some abuses by church and state
The Nakaz (“Instruction”) • Denounced capital punishment and torture • Promoted the concept of individual rights (at least for some people) • Rejected serfdom as “barbaric and anachronistic” • Did anything actually change for the serfs? • No. Duh. The reality was politics and socioeconomic dynamics were never going to let that happen.
Other Great Reforms • The Legislative Commission (1767) • Designed to address local and regional issues • Intended to increase rationality and reason in the legal system • Represented vast segments of the population. Who was excluded? • It was a Great idea, so guess how long it lasted… • One year. It was disbanded in 1768.
EmelianPugachev’s Rebellion – 1773 • EmelianPugachev • 1742 – 1775 • Veteran turned deserter • Ethnic Cossack • Peasant rebellion • Serfs • Workers • Ethnic minorities • Seized a considerable amount of land • From the Volga River valley to the Ural Mountains • To the map we go!
The End of the Rebellion – 1774 • It was a bunch of peasants against the Russian army. What did you think was going to happen? • Pugachev captured and executed.
Russo-Turkish Wars (1768 – 1792) • Secured Russian control of the Black Sea • Thanks to a major defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Chesma (1770) • Gained a foothold in the Balkans • Took control of the Crimea
The Partition of Poland • Poland and Russia… not BFFs • Catherine put a former lover, Stanislaw Poniatowski, on the throne (1768) • Poland was in general disarray, so plotting ensued • Russia, Prussia, and Austria decided to divide up Poland • 1772 – Poland lost 1/3 of its territory • 1793 – Divided up even further • 1794 – Divided up even further, again • 1795 – Poland? What Poland? (No more Poland until after WWI) • Incorporation of additional diverse populations
Next Time… • Paul I – a loser who gets assassinated • A whole series of Alexanders and Nicholases • Alexander I • Nicholas I • Alexander II • Alexander III • Nicholas II • The Russian Revolution (probably the next next time)
Paul I: A Loser Who Got Assassinated • Catherine died in 1796 • Legacy of bitterness • Tried to undo his mother’s accomplishments • Ineffective leader • Paranoid • Irascible • Bad decision maker LOSER
Great Ideas, Paul. You’re an awesome leader. Alienating Everyone Let’s mess with Napoleon Entered into and out of agreements with France and against France Lead to unstable relationships with many European countries • Supported the spread and the deepening of serfdom • Undermined the gentry by dictating serf policies himself
Paul: A Remarkable Legacy • Establishment of primogeniture • Why did primogeniture matter? Well, it all goes back to his mommy issues. • Assassinated in a coup 1801 St. Michael’s Palace
Alexander I (1777 – 1825) A Study in Contrasts • Admired Rousseau and inspired by French revolutionaries • Thought a lot about reform and change • Actively sought to maintain Russian autocracy • Very religiously/spiritually inclined
Domestic Policy • Tried to clean up his father’s mess • Restored government officials to positions • Lifted bans on international travel and allowed foreigners and foreign trade • Relaxed censorship laws • Reinstated torture bans • Gave more power back to local governments
The Unofficial Committee • Met daily to discuss political, economic, and social issues in Russia • Conflicted about serfdom • Extended property rights • Allowed gentry to free serfs • Liked the idea of limiting autocratic power • In theory.
Mikhail Speransky’s Reforms • Make Russia a constitutional monarchy • Restructure society • Gentry • Merchants • Laborers • Grant real local authority • Standardize law across Russia • Based on what you know of Alexander, what happened?