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Chemistry Tri A Review

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  1. Chemistry Tri A Review

  2. Review200 • How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.0032? 40500? Convert these numbers to scientific notation • 2, 3 • 3.2 x 10-3, 4.05 x 104 Back to the board

  3. Review 400 • A tentative answer to a scientific question is called? What is the variable? The experimental control • The hypothesis • The one factor being tested • Keeps all conditions constant Back to the board

  4. Review 600 • Hydrogen has three isotopes H-1, H-2 and H-3. Given the average atomic mass is 1.01, what is the most common isotope of hydrogen? What is Mass Defect? • H-1 • Mass lost during a nuclear reaction Back to the board

  5. Review 800 • All atoms of the same elements have the same number of? Isotopes of the same element vary in their numbers of. What are the relative AMU of protons, neutrons and electrons? • Protons • Neutrons and atomic mass • 1, 1, 0 Back to the board

  6. Review 1000 • Absolute zero is what number in Kelvin? In Celsius? At what temperature does water boil in Celsius? In Kelvin? • 0, -273C • 100C, 373K Back to the board

  7. Radiant Energy200 • A hertz is the same as? How is wavelength measured? • Cycle/second = s-1 • Distance between corresponding points on consecutive waves Back to the board

  8. Radiant Energy 400 • Light has properties of? What is the speed of light? • Particles and waves • 3.00 x 108 m/s Back to the board

  9. Radiant Energy 600 • How are s-1 and 1/s use in measuring frequency? • Frequency = Hertz = Joule seconds (Js) or Joules/s-1 Back to the board

  10. Radiant Energy 800 • What are the colors of the visible spectrum? What color has the shortest wavelength? What color has the lowest energy? Which of the following is not a form of electromagnetic radiation (xrays\gamma rays\soundwaves\visable light? • R O Y G B I V • Violet • Red • soundwaves Back to the board

  11. Radiant Energy 1000 • What does the equation λ=c/v mean? If a wave has a length of 800nm what is its frequency? What is that in KHz? • Wavelength = (speed of light) / frequency • 3.75x1014 Hz • 3.75x1011 KHz Back to the board

  12. Quantum Theory200 • What is Plank’s constant? How can you use this to find the Energy of a particle. What did Plank mean by energy quantization? • h = 6.6262x10-34J*s • E=hv • Electrons can only jump in a quanta of energy not a partial quanta. Back to the board

  13. Quantum Theory 400 • Explain why x-rays can harm humans and radio waves can not. Name all parts of the diagram • E=hv, so the energy associated with a X-ray is much higher then the energy associated with a radio wave. The energy of a radio wave is too low to harm humans. • A=wave height, b= wavelength, c = , d= amplitude . Trough, Back to the board

  14. Quantum Theory 600 • Why does violet light release electrons from metal and red does not. What is this process called the Einstein figured out? • Violet light has such a high quanta of energy that it releases the excited electrons escape from the metal. Red light is a lower energy and doesn’t move the electrons enough to displace them from the metal. • Photoelectric effect. Back to the board

  15. Quantum Theory 800 • Which group has two different numbers of valance electrons? Give the valence electrons in each group of the Main Group elements. • Noble gases • 1+, 2+, 3+ 4+, +5 +6 , +7 Back to the board

  16. Quantum Theory 1000 • What is a particle of light called? How fast can this particle travel, (name and number). • photon • Speed of light 3.00 e 8 m/s Back to the board

  17. The Atom200 • What is a continuous spectrum? What is an electron doing in a emission spectrum and a absorption spectrum? • One show the blending of the colors of ROY G Biv. • Absorption: electrons are moving from ground state to excited state. • Emission: electron is moving from excited to ground state Back to the board

  18. The Atom 400 • Describe how neon lights work. • Electricity causes electrons to move from ground to excited and back releasing energy and giving off colored light depending upon the gas in the tube. Back to the board

  19. The Atom 600 • Describe what a principle quantum number “n” is. What did DeBroglie name ? Why • the levels of electrons circling the nucleus from one to seven • - matterwaves • Light behaves like waves so matter behaves like waves hence matterwaves Back to the board

  20. The Atom 800 • What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal? Describe lights dual nature. • Can’t measure position and momentum of an electron simultaneously. • Photons of lights act as waves and particles. Back to the board

  21. The Atom 1000 • Were DeBroglie’s thoughts proven by him? • Name a, b, c, d • No, someone else did it. • A=microwaves, b=infrared radiation , c=ultraviolet d= xrays Back to the board

  22. A New Look 200 • Write the complete electron configuration for Cl. Write the abbreviated electron configuration for P • How many dots would be in the dot diagrams of both Cl and P? • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 • (Ne) 3s2 3p3 • Cl 7 dots; P 5 dots Back to the board

  23. A New Look 400 • Why do electrons not have orbits but can be found in orbitals? What is the name of the model where the previous is described? • Orbits are specific paths, orbitals are paths of high probability where electrons can be found. • Quantum-Mechanical Model Back to the board

  24. A New Look 600 • Name the 4 different kinds of orbitals. State the number of electron pairs that can be found in each orbital. Describe the orbital that has 6 electrons in it with detailed addresses and filling order. • s, p, d, f • S=1 pair, p=3 pair, d= 5 pair, f= 7 pair • Px1, py1, pz1, px2, py2, pz2 1 Back to the board

  25. A New Look 800 • Which orbital always fills first? What is its shape? What is the difference in its shape as energy grows? • S • Sphere • Gets larger Back to the board

  26. A New Look 1000 • What is the next highest energy level after 3d? According to Bohr, how do electrons circle the nucleus? How do electrons spin in an s orbital? • 4p • Specific allowed orbits • Opposite directions +/- 1/2 Back to the board

  27. Electron Config.200 • Which of these energy levels can never exist: 1p, 2d, 3f? What are the outermost electrons called? What are the used for? • 1p, 2d, 3f • Valence • bonding Back to the board

  28. Electron Config. 400 • Explain Aufbau Principle. Explain Pauli Exclusion Principle. Explain Hund’s rule. • Electrons fill orbitals one at a time to lowest energy orbitals first • 1) only 2 electrons per orbital 2) electrons must have opposite spins • Each orbital orientation of a sub level must contain 1 electron before being paired up. Back to the board

  29. Electron Config. 600 • What makes the configuration for chromium and copper an exception to the Aufbau principle • They fill like 4s1 then 3d5 rather than 4s2 then 3d4 Back to the board

  30. Electron Config. 800 • Draw the arrow diagram for neon. Give the electron configuration for P. • 1s 2 (two arrows/1bed) 2s 2 (two arrows/1bed) 2p 6 (6 arrows/3beds) • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3or[Ne] 3s2 3p3 Back to the board

  31. Electron Config. 1000 • What levels do the first s,p,d,f orbitals appear? • s-1, p-2, d-3, f-4 Back to the board

  32. ?200 Back to the board

  33. ?400 Back to the board

  34. ? 600 Back to the board

  35. ?800 Back to the board

  36. ?1000 Back to the board

  37. Final Jeopardy • Calculate the frequency and energy of a wave of 750nm? • 4.0 x 1014 s-1 (frequency) How to calculate this answer: 750nm | 1x 108 m = 7.5 x 10-7 m 1 1nm V=c/λ v = 3.0x 108 m/s =4 x 1014 s-1 (frequency) 7.5x 10-7 m Then you must calculate Energy • E = hv E = 6.6262 x 10-34 J•S x 4 x 1014 s-1 Rewrite to 6.6262 x 10-34 J•S4 x 1014 s • E = 1.66x 10-48 J Back to the board