Antebellum America: North vs. South SBMS U.S.History Mr. Durfee, Mr. Lindemann , Mrs. Hillyard
Setting the Scene • Mid-1800’s • Differences between the North and the South grew so strong that compromise no longer seemed possible • Tragically, Americans turned to civil war to settle their disagreements. • The long and bloody war resulted in defeat for the South and victory for the Union
America Divided • Economic changes created divisions in the United States • Three areas of conflict: • North – economy based in manufacturing and trade • South – relied on slaves to raise crops for economy • West – settlers wanted cheap land and good transportation
The North: Farming • Mostly small farms • Labor provided by family members • Subsistence agriculture: food crops and livestock • Slavery not profitable in this system
The North: Industry • Factories first began in New England • 92% of the nation’s industries were in the North • Produced fabric and shoes • This is called the Industrial Revolution • Goods made in factories rather than in homes • 75% of Nation’s Wealth in North
The North: Labor • Factories required workers • First factory workers were young women, called “Mill Girls” • Paid an hourly wage • “Free Labor” – no slaves
The North: Labor • Wages were low • Working hours long • Working conditions often dangerous • Child labor
The North: Labor • By 1850, most “Mill Girls” replaced by immigrants in the factories • Immigrants willing to work for lower wages • Created a “working class”
The North: Cities • Factories and workers in cities • Several large cities: Boston, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Chicago • Crowded conditions and urban slums • 22 Million Americans
The North: Transportation • Factory goods needed to be moved to market • Canals were built • Erie Canal linked the Hudson River with Lake Erie • Also steamboats and railroads improved transportation • 75% of America’s Railroads were in the North
The North: Social Classes The wealthy: businessmen, factory owners and professionals Working class Servants and urban poor Free blacks
The South: Farming • Plantation economy • Cash crops like tobacco, sugar, cotton and rice • Large “farms” • Purpose was to make a profit • Also small farms on poor land and in the mountains
The South: King Cotton • In 1790, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin, which cleaned cotton by machine. • More cotton grown & more slaves needed. • By 1820s, cotton was 1/2 of our total exports – big business!
The South: Labor • Source of labor on cotton plantations was slaves • 4 million by 1860 • Slaves were 1/3 of total population of South • Slavery was allowed by the 3/5’s Compromise • In some places, slaves outnumbered whites
The South: Chattel Slavery • A system of slavery in which one human being owned another as property • Life-long condition • Slavery inherited – children of slaves were also slaves • Often cruel and brutal
The South: Social Classes • Wealthy white plantation owners • Lived on rich flat land near rivers • 10,000 wealthy families in 1860 • Owned more than 50 slaves • A minority, but political & economic power
Slave Cost • Slave trade banned in 1808 • Slave demand rises as does the cost of slaves • 1790 - $300 • 1860 – $1500 • Slave traders began to smuggle Slaves into the United States • 1790 – 500,000 Slaves • 1850 – 4 Million Slaves
The South: Social Classes • Yeoman farmers (a free man owning his own farm) • 9 Million Southerners • Some owned a few slaves • 2/3 of all whites owned no slaves at all • Subsistence agriculture – lived on poor land
The South: Social Classes • Slaves the lowest social class • No rights, could be sold at any time, families were split up, most did hard labor in the fields.
The South: Industry, Cities and Transportation • Economy entirely focused on agriculture (farming) • Very little industry • Few cities • Not a lot of canals or railroads • Rural society
Map Comp of 1850 Popular Sovereignty Allow the people in a territory to vote on whether they want slavery to exist or not in their state.
Election of 1848 Both the Whigs and the Democrats remained silent on the issue of slavery even though Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.
Compromise of 1850 • Most intense debate in U.S. History • John C. Calhoun • North should honor the Constitution and enforce the Fugitive Slave Law • South wanted California • Threatened to secede from U.S. (dead horse) • U.S. should have two Presidents---one from the North and one for the South • Daniel Webster • Secession is impractical & impossible • How would we split the land? • The military? • Compromise at all cost • Preserve the Union • Henry Clay • The Great Compromiser, with John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Stephen Douglas, propose this compromise.
Picture/S.Douglas STEPHEN DOUGLAS • U.S. Senator from the state of Illinois • Solve the slavery issue was through Popular Sovereignty • let the people in each territory decide through the process of voting whether they want slavery or not. • Along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun they proposed theCompromise of 1850 • Calif. A free state • Enforce a stricter Fugitive Slave Law • Popular Sovereignty • stop slave trade in Washington, D.C.
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW • ABOLITIONISTS RESPOND • Denounced by Abolitionists • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published • Abolitionists refuse to enforce the law • Underground Railroad becomes more active
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW SOUTHERNERS RESPOND • Southerners threatened secession and war • Believed it should be enforced because the Constitution protects property and Federal law is over State law (oh, look who’s changed their tune!). • 5th Amendment • Supremacy Clause
The “Know-Nothings” Form The American Party] • Nativists. • Anti-Catholics. • Anti-immigrants.
KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ACT • Douglas really wanted to build a transcontinental railroad connecting California to the East Coast either in the South or North, but had to convince the South to let him do this in the North • Proposed a plan that Kansas and Nebraska territories be opened up to slavery w/popular sovereignty in return for building the railroad in the North. The Little Giant in Action
Map Bleeding Kan BLEEDING KANSAS • Kansas/Nebraska Act led to several acts of violence between pro-slavery settlers and anti-slavery settlers (totally overblown by media – border ruffians from South). • First violent outbreaks between north/south. • First battles of the Civil War begin in Kansas in 1856. (Led by John Brown) Attacks by free-states Attacks by pro-slavery states
Bleeding Kan BLEEDING KANSAS After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the Kansas territory became a battleground. Pro-slavery and antislavery supporters rushed to settle in Kansas. The territory was torn by battles and “massacres.” The issue also bitterly divided the nation and led to the formation of the Republican Party.
Effects of K-N • Whigs were destroyed as northern ones helped form Republicans, joined Free-Soilers, or supported Nativists, and southern ones did nothing • The Dems shattered in two w/northerners furious at expansion of slavery • Compromise of 1850 nullified, along w/Missouri Compromise • Kansas itself went pro-slavery with a corrupt Lecompton Constitution (pushed by Buchanan) even though slavery-free constitution passed in Topeka • Broke the Little Giant’s heart and made him split w/Democrats due to pop. sov. Failing
“The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner(R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks(D-SC) (Bully Brooks, who received many canes to replace his broken one)
Free Soil Party formed in the 40s (led by Van Buren) against the expansion of slavery Formed to stop the expansion of slavery Parts and Formation of the REPUBLICAN PARTY Democrats opposed the expansion of slavery (split in 1850s due to K-N Act) A Few Abolitionists National Republican which become the Whigs Know Nothing Party (against immigration)
The Election of 1856 Fremont lost by a bare margin, and proved that the Republicans could take the entire election w/o the South, if they all voted together (South begins to get angry and suspicious about American politics)
DRED SCOTT DECISION • Slave from Missouri traveled with his owner to Illinois & Minnesota both free states. • His master died and Scott wanted to move back to Missouri---Missouri still recognized him as a slave. • He sued his master’s widow for his freedom since he had lived in a free state for a period of time. • Court case went to the Supreme Court for a decision-----National issue • Can a slave sue for his freedom? • Is a slave property? • Is slavery legal?
DRED SCOTT DECISION • Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision • Slaves cannot sue the U.S. for their freedom because they are property. • They are not citizens and have no legal right under the Constitution. • Supreme Court legalized slavery by saying that : • Congress could not stop a slaveowner from moving his slaves to a new territory • Missouri Compromise and all other compromises were unconstitutional • North refused to enforce Fugitive Slave Law • Free states pass personal liberty laws. • Republicans claim the decision is not binding • Southerners call on the North to accept the decision if the South is to remain in the Union.
Reading/Scott decision DRED SCOTT DECISION Chief Justice Roger B.Taney (1777 to 1864) in the case of Dred Scott referred to the status of slaves when the Constitution was adopted. “They had (slaves) for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order; and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect. This opinion was at that time fixed and universal in the civilized portion of the white race.”
Picture/J.Brown JOHN BROWN • Violent abolitionist • Involved in the Bleeding Kansas as a northern fighter • Murdered 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas • Wanted to lead a slave revolt throughout the South by raising an army of freed slaves and destroying the South.
Harper’s Ferry, WV JOHN BROWN • Attacked a U.S. Ammunition depot in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in Oct. of 1859 to capture weapons and begin his slave revolt.
Picture/J.Brown JOHN BROWN • Unsuccessful and captured by USMC under the leadership of Robert E. Lee at this Firehouse • Put on trial for treason
Picture/J.Brown Hanging JOHN BROWN • He was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death. • His last words were to this effect:“I believe that the issue of slavery will never be solved unless through the shedding of blood.” • Northerners thought of John Brown as a martyr to the abolitionist cause. • Southerners were terrified that if John Brown almost got away with this, and that there must be others like him in the North who are willing to die to end slavery. • South’s outcome: To leave the U.S. and start their own country.