North America AP Human Geography Exam Review
North America • 23 independent states • 529 million people • 7.5% of human population • 3rd largest continent
Rocky Mountains • New Mexico to northern Canada • Highest mountains in NA • Industry: natural gas drilling; silver and copper mining • Nature reserves/natural parks
Mount McKinley Mount McKinley or Denali in Alaska is the highest mountain peak in North America, at a height of approximately 20,320 feet (6,194 metres)
Cascades • Northwest US & Southern British Canada • Highest peak: Mt Rainier • Known for volcanic activity – Mt. St. Helens in 1980
Death Valley Death Valley is a valley in the U.S. state of California, and is the location of the lowest elevation in North America.
Sierra Nevadas The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. The range is also known as The Sierra. Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m), is the highest point in the contiguous United States.
Appalachian Mountains • Georgia to Newfoundland • Includes: • Smoky Mountains (TN, NC) • Blue Ridge & Shenandoah (VA) • Poconos (PA) • Adirondack Mts (NY) • Catskills (NY)
Appalachian Mts • Economy: mining, forestry, agriculture, chemical industries, and heavy industry
North America Rivers St. Lawrence River
The Rio Grande River Missouri River
US & Canada • English speaking (British colonization) except Quebec – French speaking (colonization) • Primarily Christian (mostly Protestant) • Only 0.8% of US population is Native American
Urbanization • Mexico City: 8.8 million • NYC: 8.4 million • Los Angeles: 3.8 million • Toronto: 2.7 million • Chicago: 2.7 million • Houston: 2.1 million • Havana: 2.1 million • Montreal: 1.6 million
Middle America and the Caribbean Global Cultures Snyder
MEXICO • Capital: Mexico City (8.7 million) • 5th largest country in the Americas by total area and 14th largest in the world • 11th most populous country • the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world.
Landforms • Mexico is on the Ring of Fire • Most of Mexico is a Central Plateau – over 7500’ • 3 mountain ranges border Central Plateau • Sierra Madre Oriental • Sierra Madre Occidental • Sierra Madre del Sur • coastal plain on both sides
Landforms • Mexico City is at the southern end of the plateau (thin air, pollution, located in a bowl/valley) • southern Mexico is very rugged • Isthmus of Tehuantepec in southern Mexico • narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas
Landforms • Yucatan Peninsula separates Caribbean from Gulf of Mexico • made up of limestone • Sinkholes and caves have formed – can scuba dive from Caribbean under land
Climate and Natural Resources • leading producer of silver • oil and gas mined along the Gulf coast • Northern areas have become industrialized (maquiladoras) • Yucatan & Baja California: tourism
The Border The U.S.–Mexico border has the highest number of both legal and illegal crossings of any land border in the world. Besides the closeness of the two countries, differences in living standards on the two sides of border is the primary driving force behind these migratory flows. A large percentage of the border is guarded by large numbers of patrolling agents of the U.S. federal government.
On the flip-side… • Mexico is home of the largest number of American citizens abroad (estimated at one million), which represents 1% of the Mexican population and 25% of all American citizens abroad.
Greater Mexico City • Mexico City is the cultural, economic and political center of Mexico • it is a large, modern metropolitan city • built on Indian ruins – some ruins still visible • tourism industry is very important • the Spanish influence is also visible – churches, food, music, language, architecture • parts of the city are poor • very bad air pollution – Mexico City is built in a bowl
Central Mexico • this is the Central Plateau – Mexico City is in the Central Plateau • the 2nd largest city in Mexico is here - Guadalajara • this city looks like a Spanish city • was a major grain growing area • today – big and small farms – grow cash crops
Gulf Lowlands & Southern Mexico • Gulf Lowlands • tropical rainforest • savanna grassland • commercial farming in this region today • Vera Cruz is the main seaport and communications center • oil and natural gas is VERY important • Southern Mexico is the poorest region of Mexico • includes Yucatan and mountains of the south • greatly influenced by he Indian culture • subsistence farming, crafts, language • some people want independence from Mexico
Acapulco Nights! The La Quebrada Cliff Divers are a group of professional high divers, based in Acapulco, Mexico. They perform daily shows for the public, which involve diving 45 metres (~147' 8") from the cliffs of La Quebrada into the sea below. Acupulco cliff diving was regularly featured on weekend sports television programming in the United States during the 1970s.
Modern Mexico • 75% now live in towns or cities • Increasing population • NAFTA was signed in 1992 • eliminated tariffs (border still an issue) • tourism • important on the east coast – cities include Cancun, Veracruz • on the west coast – Mazatlan, Acapulco • their daily are changing – they want what you have • families are getting small – more women have jobs
Mexican Culture • The way of life in Mexico includes many features from the nation's long Amerindian past and the Spanish colonial period. • The people of Mexico take great pride of their country, culture, ethnicity, lifestyle and economic independence. • Mexican culture also exhibits strong family ties, respect, hard working and socializing together in the community.
Religion • 95% are Roman Catholic • Others practice indigenous religions • Much combination of the two
Indigenous Peoples • Mexico is ethnically diverse, and the constitution defines the country to be a "pluricultural nation“ • Most indigenous people live in southern Mexico and relate their heritage to Aztecs or Mayas