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North America

North America. First migrants from Asia over 10,000 years ago, probably much more. Probably came over the Bering straits. Moved progressively southwards. Population by the time of European discovery several million.

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North America

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  1. North America First migrants from Asia over 10,000 years ago, probably much more. Probably came over the Bering straits. Moved progressively southwards. Population by the time of European discovery several million. "Pueblo" Indians in the South (Arizona, New Mexico): farmers. Apaches, Iroquois hunter-gatherers and warriors. Parsons UK/US History

  2. North America North-West, Dakota or Sioux: warriors, nomadic. Buffalo. Tepees, ... North America probably first discovered (i.e. discovered by Europeans) by Vikings. Recent archeological finds support Viking sagas recounting Viking journeys and (unsuccessful) settlements. The "Vinland saga". 1492 Christopher Columbus lands on island off the East coast of America. Thought he was on an island to the East of India. Called local inhabitants "Los Indios", the Indians. Parsons UK/US History

  3. North America King Henry VII 1497 gave commission to John Cabot to discover lands further north. Landed at Newfoundland. Second journey sailed into Chesapeake Bay. Found no gold. Spanish conquest and discovery. Cortes in South America conquered Aztecs in 1520s. Pizarro attacked Peru in 1530s. Other conquistadores turned their attention further north. Parsons UK/US History

  4. North America Hernando de Soto and Francisco Coronado late 1530s early 1540s discovered Florida and up the Mississippi; Coronado discovered the Colorado river and travelled as far as Kansas. By 1565 Spanish settlement in Florida, 1609 Spanish settlement in Santa Fe, New Mexico. French also sent explorers: François I sent Verrazano, who anchored his ship in what is now New York harbour. Jacques Cartier discovered St Lawrence river. Parsons UK/US History

  5. Parsons UK/US History

  6. North America Sir Walter Raleigh founded first English colony 1585. Colonists disappeared without trace. 1607 Virginia. Great hardship (partly because colonists unsuited to the task: they had travelled to the new world to find gold, not till the land). Disease, famine. One settler, John Smith, was captured by Indians trying to buy food. He said his life had been spared by a young Indian girl, Pocahontas. She gave the settlers food and other help. Despite this hard winter 1609-10 'starving time". Parsons UK/US History

  7. Pocahontas (died March 1617 aged 22 on ship taking her to Virginia, buried Gravesend) Parsons UK/US History

  8. North America Convicts "transported" to Virginia. Other emigrants attracted by land. The colony grew because of the quality of the tobacco grown there. In 1619 three significant events: Virginia company provided wives for the settlers, and a local government was established, called the House of Burgesses; Dutch ship sold slaves to work alongside the indentured servants (emigrants who agreed to work a specific period of time--often seven years-- in return for their passage and keep). Parsons UK/US History

  9. North America Other colonies followed: Most famously a group of "Pilgrims", Puritans fleeing persecution in England, sailed on the Mayflower in 1620. They landed far to the north of Virginia at a place they called Plymouth in what is now the state of Massachusetts (December 21 1620). Mid-winter: harsh conditions. Indians helped them survive. Nonetheless half died during the first winter. Other Puritans followed: Boston. Parsons UK/US History

  10. Mayflower Compact In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, and Advancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern Parts of Virginia; do by these Presents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, convenant and combine ourselves together into a civil Body Politick, ... Parsons UK/US History

  11. Mayflower Compact ... for our better Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the General good of the Colony; unto which we promise all due Submission and Obedience. Parsons UK/US History

  12. North America Boston and Plymouth merged to become Massachusetts. Strict rules. Breakaway group founded Rhode Island. 1664 English captured New Amsterdam from the Dutch and renamed it New York. 1670 colonies North and South Carolina. Pennsylvania founded by William Penn, a Quaker, in 1681. English settlers joined by Dutch and Germans and other Europeans. Parsons UK/US History

  13. Colony, date founded and primary purpose. From http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/colchart.html Parsons UK/US History

  14. Parsons UK/US History

  15. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/colchart.html Parsons UK/US History

  16. The Road to Independence French and Indian wars (or Seven Years war as it was known in Europe) 1754-1763 had seen fighting between French colonies in New France (Canada) and British colonies. British had taken control of French Quebec, Montreal and other French forts in North America (Fort Duquesne on the Ohio, founded by the French in 1754 in what is now Pittsburgh). Parsons UK/US History

  17. The Road to Independence In 1763 George III had passed a law preventing settlement west of the Appalachians to prevent war with Indians. Taxes imposed on imports. Colonists no longer feared the French as much as they had and began to see the army as a possible threat rather than a guarantee of safety. Parsons UK/US History

  18. The Road to Independence Further tax 1765: Stamp Act. Imposed tax (stamp duty) on legal documents and newspapers. Colonists claimed they should not pay taxes as they had no Members of Parliament to represent them: "No taxation without representation". Rebellion against stamp duty. Parsons UK/US History

  19. The Road to Independence In 1767 new taxes were introduced, most famously on tea (need to pay for French and Indian wars). Parsons UK/US History

  20. The Road to Independence 1770 scuffle with British soldiers ended up with shots being fired and three men killed and several others wounded. Publicized as the "Boston massacre" to stir up discontent with British rule. The government in fact withdrew the Stamp Act but reasserted its authority over the colonies. Parsons UK/US History

  21. "Engraved, printed and sold by Paul Revere, Boston" Parsons UK/US History

  22. The Road to Independence The British government maintained one symbolically important tax: on tea. Rebels staged the "Boston Tea Party" in 1773: disguised as Mohawk Indians they boarded ships and destroyed tea, throwing boxes of tea into the harbour. Parsons UK/US History

  23. The Road to Independence Britain responded with reprisals: the tea would have to be paid for and the harbour would remain closed until it had. Royal Navy imposed the blockade. Colonial leaders in Philadelphia met to discuss response. The "Continental Congress" organised a "boycott" of British goods and formed militias. Parsons UK/US History

  24. The Road to Independence In 1775 British soldiers moved to search for arms in the town of Concord. They found armed militiamen in Lexington. Shots were fired and eight militiamen, or "minutemen", so-called because they were to be ready to fight at a minute's notice, were killed. Parsons UK/US History

  25. The Road to Independence Other minutemen attacked the British soldiers. Many were killed. This episode made "Continentals" aware that they could confront British regulars. The British had smooth-bore muskets which were inaccurate but adequate for European-style warfare. Parsons UK/US History

  26. The Road to Independence Many colonists had longer "rifles", i.e. guns with grooves in the barrel to keep the bullet straight. These were useful for people who depended on hunting for their livelihood. They proved very effective against regular soldiers in "guerilla" warfare. Parsons UK/US History

  27. The Road to Independence In May 1775 the Continental Congress met for the second time in Philadelphia. Much of the brunt of the confrontation so far had been borne by the north, in Massachusetts. It was decided that appointing a commander from the south could provide access to the resources of the south. George Washington was the man they chose. Parsons UK/US History

  28. The Road to Independence On July 4 1776 the Congress issued the Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson. Parsons UK/US History

  29. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. Parsons UK/US History

  30. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. Parsons UK/US History

  31. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Parsons UK/US History

  32. The Road to Independence Thomas Paine in Common Sense (1776) pleaded eloquently and convincingly for separation. Mood of the Enlightenment: freedom etc. Parsons UK/US History

  33. The Road to Independence The war did not go well for the Americans, despite some initial successes. However, partly as a result of Washington's efforts to turn the army into a displined fighting force, the tide turned, and a major success was won at Saratoga (October 1777). King Louis XVI was persuaded by this that the Americans had a chance of winning and agreed to an alliance. Parsons UK/US History

  34. The Road to Independence The fighting was from then on mainly focused on the south. In 1781 Washington surrounded an army under the command of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. Cornwallis expected reinforcements, but instead of British ships, he saw French ships arrive at the harbour. He decided to surrender. London realised that it would not be possible to prevent independence. Parsons UK/US History

  35. The Road to Independence In 1883 the Treaty of Paris recognised the United States and granted them all the territory between Canada and Florida, right back to the Mississippi (with the French territory of Louisiana to the west). Many States began to behave as if they were independent nations, however. In particular they started imposing tariffs on trade between themselves. Parsons UK/US History

  36. The Road to Independence A convention was held in Philadelphia in 1787 to discuss the future: the Constitutional Convention. This hammered out the Constitution of the USA, which left many powers in the hands of the States within a federal system. Parsons UK/US History

  37. The Road to Independence The authors of the Constitution were very keen to ensure there would be a balance of power between the different branches of federal government, so that no single part could wield excessive power. The Constitution came into effect in March 1789. The first president was George Washington. Parsons UK/US History

  38. Westward Settlers looked for good land and moved west until they found it. Self-reliance allied with sense of community. The "frontier spirit"? Westward movement blocked by Appalachians. Trail found through the Cumberland Gap in 1775 (Daniel Boone) provided access to fertile plains in what is now Kentucky and Tennessee. Parsons UK/US History

  39. 1860s engraving of Daniel Boone Parsons UK/US History

  40. TV image of Daniel Boone 1664-70: James Stewart Parsons UK/US History

  41. The Louisiana Purchase In severe need of resources during the Napoleonic wars, France sold Louisana to the fledgling republic in 1803. This was a huge tract of land. Parsons UK/US History

  42. 1775 Parsons UK/US History

  43. 1790 Parsons UK/US History

  44. 1800 Parsons UK/US History

  45. 1810 Parsons UK/US History

  46. 1820 Parsons UK/US History

  47. 1830 Parsons UK/US History

  48. 1840 Parsons UK/US History

  49. 1850 Parsons UK/US History

  50. 1860 Parsons UK/US History

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