North America The Early Colonial Period
The Vikings…err…I mean the Norse • From the 9th to the 12th Century, the Norse were the leading sea power in Europe • EirikrThorvaldsson (Eric the Red) was exiled from Norway for being too violent • Escapes to Iceland, but is exiled again for being too violent • Founds the Norse colony of Greenland which lasts until the 15th C. • Leifr (Leif) Eiriksson, son of Eric, lands in NW NFLD in 1000AD • Names it “Vinland” (Wineland) for its plentiful “wineberries” • Thorvaldr, Leifr’s brother, established a colony which last until roughly 1020AD NFLD
What happened to the Norse of N. America? “Vineland” (L'Anse aux Meadow) Greenland For 500 years, the Norse raised livestock, fished, hunted, and traded with the Inuit Many Norse artifacts have been found along EllesmereIsland in N. Canada At its height in the 12thC. 4-6000 inhabitants 13th C. Greenland'sclimate became colder 1349: Bubonic Plaguekills 1/3 of the pop and the Norse lost command ofthe seas By 1450, the Greenland settlement disappeared ?
Textbook: page 219 - 223 Questions: • Read the quote from John Cabot’s Letters Patent on pg. 219. How does the use of language make it easier for Cabot and his crew to disregard the rights of people they may meet on their voyage of “discovery”? • How did Catholicism contribute to European interest in the Grand Banks off of Newfoundland and Labrador? • Imagine you are an aboriginal leader among the Beothuk of Newfoundland and Labrador. Draw up a short list of pros and cons to cooperating with the English encamped on the shores. (no hindsight here: it is the early 1500s) • How did Jacques Cartier’s sense of European superiority contribute to the failure of his mission? (make sure to include the primary source on pg. 222) • Examine the map of Cartier’s explorations. How does use of language affect the interpretation of maps?