Types of Migration • Voluntary • Involuntary • Ecological • Illegal
VOLUNTARY MIGRAITON VOLUNTARY MIGRATION – decision to move made by own free will Included in this group are people: looking for better jobs, trying to unit a family or for studying purposes Economic migration –Moving from poor to rich countries - eg. For every American worker who moves to Mexico 6 Mexican workers move to the US Ontario residents moving to British Columbia for a perceived more relaxed way of life and climate
SEASONAL MIGRATION – movement of people from their home, for a definite or temporary period of time, for employment or recreation. • Snowbirds (Canada to Florida in the winter) • Students studying abroad • Migrant workers on Canadian farms in the summer • Young people working at ski resorts (Whistler). • TEMPORARY MIGRATION – a short term movement of people reacting to a stressor or perceived stressor in their lives. Eg. Afghan refugees fleeing Kabul or Kandahar or Hong Kong residents leaving the country in anticipation of political change in 1999.
INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION – movement of people against their will Ex. slavery to fulfill European objectives, late nineteenth-century labor movements from China and India to European-controlled plantations Ethnic cleansing occurred during the post-1938 movement of Jewish population in areas controlled by the Nazi Germany populations Human trafficking
INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION Movement due to deterioration of natural environment (1900-2000 --> 60 million people forced to move due to deterioration of land) War, persecution, human rights abuses 2001 --> 50 million refugees and displaced persons
ECOLOGICAL MIGRATION • Involves movement of people because something they depend upon for life disappears or moves out of their environment • Ex. degrading soil, disappearing vegetation, drought, rising sea levels, natural disaster
ILLEGAL MIGRATION • Movement of people without approval of immigration laws • People want to improve economic opportunities and from the desire of a country to limit access (illegal immigration exists only if there are laws to prevent migration) • Most migrants move from developing countries to developed countries (better standard of living) • Most migrants migrate to cities (50 million have already moved from rural areas to cities, 1.5 million people migrate to world’s largest cities each year
ILLEGAL MIGRATION • For example, migrants from China have tried to enter Canada illegally (some hidden in hulls of decaying cargo ships) • Mexicans have avoided border patrols and illegally entered the southern U.S. (6-12 million illegal aliens in U.S. from Mexico) • People from Bangladesh have crossed the border into India for better standard of living