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Kingdoms. Rebecca Husk. http://www.castlewales.com/raglan.html. What is a kingdom?. Way of classifying species, broadest (until 1990s) In 1700s, only 2 kingdoms Plants and Animals In 1800s, 3 kingdoms Plants, Animals, Protista In 1950s, 5 kingdoms

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  1. Kingdoms Rebecca Husk http://www.castlewales.com/raglan.html

  2. What is a kingdom? • Way of classifying species, broadest (until 1990s) • In 1700s, only 2 kingdoms • Plants and Animals • In 1800s, 3 kingdoms • Plants, Animals, Protista • In 1950s, 5 kingdoms • Plants, Animals, Protista, Fungi, Monera (bacteria) • Today, 6 kingdoms (and larger group called domain) • Plants, Animals, Protista, Fungi, Eubacteria (modern bacteria), Archaebacteria (ancient bacteria)

  3. Kingdom: Plantae http://www.colourbox.com/image/simple-collage-mix-imagination-from-bright-summers-flowers-and-plants-image-1931317?utm_expid=22365066-12&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F

  4. Plantae • Multicellular, made of complex cells • Autotrophic (make own food) • Some carnivorous plants are heterotrophs • The second largest kingdom • Almost all food for every kingdom comes from plantae • Main divisions (divisions instead of phyla) • Angiosperms, Anthocerotophyta, Bryophyta,Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Cycadophyta,Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta,Lycopodiophyta, Marchantiophyta, Pinophyta, Pteridophyta, Pteridospermatophyta

  5. Plantae Examples Bellissylvestris, “Southern Daisy” Creates food through photosynthesis Lives in fields with open sunlight Mammillariasolisioides Flowering cactus Lives in dry environments Needs less water than other plants like daisy http://plantarium.wordpress.com/2010/02/21/the-mediterranean-daisy-bellis-sylvestris/ http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id78850/

  6. Kingdom aNimalia http://www.etsy.com/listing/65496642/fabric-wild-animals-collage

  7. Animalia • Multicellular, made of complex cells • Heterotrophic • Largest kingdom • Over 1 million species • Species from this kingdom live in the most diverse environments • Main phyla • Acanthocephala, Annelida, Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Chaetognatha, Chordata, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Cycliophora,Dicyemida, Echinodermata, Echiura, Entoprocta,Gastrotricha, Gnathostomulida, Hemichordata, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Micrognathozoa, Mollusca, Monoblastozoa, Myxozoa, Myzostomida, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Onychophora, Orthonectida, Phoronida, Placozoa, Platyhelminthes, Porifera, Priapulida, Rotifera, Sipuncula, Tardigrada, Xenacoelomorpha

  8. Animalia Examples Hydrurgaleptonyx, “Leopard Seal” Lives in frigid waters Carnivore, eats penguins Homo Sapiens, “Human” Lives in almost any environment Heterotrophic, usually omnivorous http://openwaterpedia.com/index.php?title=Leopard_seal http://www.earthwalkproject.org/images/Human-Being-Photo.jpg

  9. Kingdom Archaebacteria http://seunghun.wikispaces.com/Archaebacteria

  10. Archaebacteria • Unicellular organisms, not complex • Live in extreme environments • Ex. boiling springs • Discovered in 1983 • Main phyla • Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermoacidophile

  11. Archaebacteria Examples Methanobrevibactersmithii - In human digestive tract- Uses things body cannot break down for nutrients (like waste from bacteria fermentation) Thermococcuslitoralis Found near vents in deep sea http://www.uprm.edu/biology/profs/rios/metano03_files/slide0027_image026.jpg http://www.lookfordiagnosis.com/mesh_info.php?term=Thermococcus&lang=1

  12. Kingdom Eubacteria

  13. Eubacteria • Single celled organisms, not complex • Most bacteria in this kingdom • Some are helpful • Some in intestines help break down things body can’t • Help soil be full of nutrients • Some hurt • Ex. Strep Throat • Main phyla • Bacteria Incertaesedis, Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group, Acidobacteria,Actinobacteria,Aquificae,Chlamydiae,Chloroflexi, Chrysiogenetes, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres,Deinococcus,Thermus,Dictyoglomi,Fibrobacteres,Firmicutes,Fusobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes,Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes,Proteobacteria,Spirochaetes,Thermodesulfobacteria, Thermotogae, Verrucomicrobia

  14. Eubacteria Examples Streptococcal pharyngitis, “Strep Throat” Harmful bacteria Causes sore throat and pus on tonsils Escherichia coli, “E. Coli” Lives in intestines Most are harmless, but some can lead to food poisoning http://welchsclassscience.blogspot.com/ http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/IDCU/disease/e-coli/e-Coli-Data.doc

  15. Kingdom Fungi http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/fungi.html

  16. Fungi • Multicellular and complex • Different than plants • Plants are autotrophs, fungi are heterotrophs • Some are edible, others aren’t • Main phyla • Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Chytridiomycota,Glomeromycota,Microsporidia,Neocallimastigomycota,Zygomycota, Fungi incertaesedis

  17. Fungi Examples Armillariabulbosa, “Michigan Fungus Clone” Lives in tree roots Edible Penicilliumchrysogenum, “mold” Helps make penicillin Found in damp places http://www.flickr.com/photos/53016838@N07/5496917600/ http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/nov2003.html

  18. Kingdom Protista https://autocww2.colorado.edu/~toldy2/E64ContentFiles/VirusesMoneransAndProtists/Protista.html

  19. Protista • Most are unicellular • Microscopic organisms that don’t fit into another kingdom • Complex organisms, unlike bacteria • “odds and ends” kingdom • Molds and algae are in protista • Main phyla

  20. Protista Examples Giardia lamblia Parasite Lives in small intestine Physarumpolycephalum, “slime mold” Lives in moist or damp areas Senstiive to light http://trialx.com/curebyte/2012/11/05/giardia-lamblia-photos/ http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=2510

  21. Bibliography • The Six Kingdoms, http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/Six_Kingdoms/Index.htm, accessed June 27, 2013 • Wikispecies, http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, accessed June 27, 2013 • Georgia Virtual High School, https://students.ga.desire2learn.com/d2l/le/content/402400/viewContent/2465400/View, accessed June 27, 2013

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