Old and new History of animation
Introduction In the 1800’s the beginning signs of 2D animation techniques began to pop up into the scene. Different styles and techniques were being devised in this time but there were four that stood out from the rest. Phenakistoscope, Zoetrope, Praxinoscope and the Kinetoscope. In the following slides I am going to be writing about the first signs of animation and how they have developed all the way up until present time today. I will present these styles of animation and there creators in timeline order after doing so I will explain how 2D animation has developed around us and how it is being shown in everyday life such as in television internet and advertising etc.
The Beginning In the early days around 18,000 BC the first signs of humans expressing themselves in an artistic ways were being shown. There are many signs of cave paintings in ancient caves around the world one of the well known set of caves would be the Apollo 11 caves in Africa. These paintings were not animation but it has been said that when light flickers over the paintings it creates an illusion that the images are moving
The Beginning In 2000 BC both Egyptians and Greeks were expressing themselves in the same way as the wall paintings. Greeks chose to draw their stories on pottery, the stories usually consisted of strong gladiators and different battles here is an example of Perseus defeating medusa
The Beginning Egyptians presented their art in the same style as the Greeks but their paintings were on walls and Papyrus scrolls. There are many different stories that can be told and again although this is not a full sign of fully functional moving animation it just shows how animation developed from the start
Phenakistocope .The Phenakistoscope was developed in the 1830’S by the Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau .This device was the first of its kind and the name of the device was chosen due to its Latin meaning (lie/deceive) .This device was made to deceive the human eye to believe that the animation was really moving when really infact it was a sequence of images played to create a moving image. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQC69B6TNZU&feature=related
Zoetrope .The zoetrope was the second form of 2D animation device, this device was originally created in china 180ad by the chinese inventor Ting Huan. .The Pipe Which Makes Fantasies Appear . the British mathematician William George Horner created the modern version in 1834. This modern device was called the Daedalumwhich was popularly translated into the wheel of devil. This device did not become popular until the 1860’s were it then was later renamed to the Zoetrope Wheel of Life http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rMxSB0hBCs&feature=related
Praxinoscope .The Praxinoscope was developed as the successor of the zoetrope in France 1877 Charles-Émile Reynaud. . The praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in position as the wheel turned. . . Like a lot of the other first animation devices there is a meaning to the name the closest translation to the word Praxinoscope is action viewer from Greek roots.
Praxinoscope .was developed further in the later 1800’s The theatre optique was an improved version brought in by Reynaud in 1889 this new improved version allowed him to project longer roles of film meaning that he could show brighter hand drawn images in animation.
Kinetosope .Thomas Edison announced his new invention in a caveat full of people on October the 17th 1888 . describing his ideas for a device which would "do for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear" record and reproduce objects in motion .Edison called the invention a Kinetoscope, using the Greek words "kineto " meaning "movement" and "scopos" meaning "to watch."
Kinetoscope Edison's assistant, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, was given the task of inventing the device in June 1889 this was said to be because he had a background knowledge of photography. .Laurie Dickonson was responsible for testing the machine and actually creating this motion picture device. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIkLok-BYIk
Animation Early Days J. Stuart Blackton was one of the major pioneers of animation. He began his short legacy by using the stop motion animation techniques and became very popular. One of his most famous animations was the enchanted drawing in which he used stop motion techniques to interact with a drawing he had created on a chalkboard. This seems very simple to the people of our world today but this was the start of something big.
Animation Early Days Emile Cohl Created the first film made entirely full of animation "The Father of the Animated Cartoon“ fantasmagorie was emiles first fully animated film made in 1908 (700 drawings made of rice paper)
Animation Early Days Canadian born Windsor McCayproduced a small number of films but of a very high quality McCay's pioneering early animated films far outshone the work of his contemporaries, and set a standard followed by Walt Disney and others in later decades. His two best-known creations are the newspaper comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland and gertie the dinosaur
Animation Early Days John Randolph Bray evolved animation and made the process of making animation a whole lot easier with his cell system. Cell animation helped with the positioning of the drawings and minimized the time consumption dramatically He produced the first animated-color film, The Debut of Thomas Cat (1920),
Animation Early Days Walter Elias "Walt" Disney Disney is a film producer and a popular showman, he was also an innovator in animation and theme park design. He and his staff created a number of the world's most famous fictional characters including Mickey Mouse, a character for which Disney himself was the original voice. Mickey mouse is now one of the most iconic characters in the world and It all kicked off from Disneys animation “Steam boat willie” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBgghnQF6E4 Disney is also responsible for the first full feature length animated movie “Snow white and the seven dwarfs”
Development After the coloured and sound animations took off and became known to the world it continued to be visible to the world in entertainment form. Disney decided to keep their animations film based so it was left to other entertainment companies such as Warner Bro’s the takeover the television scene with different animation series. MGM was responsible for most of the popular cartoon animations in the 1900. Cartoons such as Bugs Bunny and Tom and Jerry all had something to do with MGM William Hanna and Joseph Barbera
Development HannahBarbera created their own company which hosted one of their most popular tv shows The Flinstones. Animation began to become more and more popular and associated with entertaining kids but it was also being used as a form of advertisement and also it was being used for title sequences for opening shows such as The lucy show. Here is an example to explain the animation advertisement side http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NAExoSozc2c
Entertainment Animation HannahBarbera ended up developing into what we know today as Cartoon Network. This is one if not the most popular kids television station in the world. It shows a variety of different TV programmes ranging from the old school hits such as Scooby doo to new children's shows such as The cramp Twins. Cartoon Network was mainly a youth orientated show which was aimed at kids and is still in a league of its own even though rival stations have appeared .over the years
Entertainment Animation At the same time that americans where having there success Japan was also developing fast with their first animation series Astro boy created by Osamu Tezuka. Osamu was often refurred to as the God of Managa and mangawa the original still form of astroboy before it was turned into an animation. The Japanese style aimation has since been given its own style name Anime
Entertainment Animation Now that the internet has been introduced many websites have been able to add animation to make their sites appeal more. Now many sites will have animation involved within them and Cartoon Network have done exactly that by incorprating animation within their websites to catch their target audience and draw them in more http://www.cartoonnetwork.co.uk/
Entertainment Animation Animation has moved beyond children, it has moved on because people have realized that animation can be used to market any type of product providing it is used in the right way. Music videos are now being shown with animation involved from advanced to very simple styles. There is a great amount in different types of animations in music videos here are just a few as an example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ak2ZJXL_tBA&feature=fvsr http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zo7FpI8MmmE&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEKEjpTzB0Q&ob=av2e
Entertainment Animation Throughout the recent years animation in movies has developed dramatically in terms of the techniques used, it wasn’t until about 1993 that dramatic change was shown in the animation film area. In 1993 Jurassic Park used CG to create the illusion of real life animated dinosaurs in this hit film. This film late continued to make sequels and trilogys but this was the first of its kind and it was a hit.
Entertainment Animation Leading up to 1995 Disney regulated the animation movie scene with countless amounts of movie hits such a The Beauty and the Beast and Alladin but when Toy story was realesed it made Worldwide history. Toy story was the first 3D CGI full feature length film and it smashed records due to how amazed the public were to this new type of animation and new form of entertainment. After this disneyrealised they were on to a winner so they continued and made Bugs Life and then Toy story 2.
Entertainment Animation Miyazaki kept busy like Disney but was not able to release as much and at a pace that Disney studios was. Miyazaki (known as the Japanese Walt Disney) preffered to do his animation all hand drawn so it was very time consuming. His work paid off though in the end Miyazaki ended up with a lot of hit films one of his most popular is the 2001 Spirited away which consists of hand drawn animation and CG.
Entertainment Animation Since Disney introduced the CG 3D style animation they have not really gone back to the traditional hand drawn styled animation here’s just a few pictures to show how far they have come. Also animation companies have found ways to profit more by creating 3D versions of their films were they can be viewed in 3D form for a greater cinema experience
Products Computer games have been using animation from the start ad just like how animation has developed so has computer game with it. The more animation technology is developed the better gaming experiences for people is going to be. The growth of computer games has changed dramatically from the space by space block style Atari games to new dynamic sports games with equipped physics for enhanced gaming experience. Just like films games use different types of animation styles but CG has taken over game players want to see more realistic games all the time and we are seeing this outcome in games such as Call of Duty Fifa 11 and GTA. All the surroundings and effects down to ripples in water are being perfected. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnGcw1f_R5I http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kz22WLE9uZY
Products Mobile phones are even being combined with animation nowadays not only wit the games that they provide but even down to the simplest things like the phone start up animations. Now technology with phones is growing fast so animation has to be added. Many phones in the market can hold screensavers so a lot of animated screensavers have been developed to help users interact with their phones more. There are a lor more uses for animation in products like this but these are just some of the basics.
Advertisement Advertisement is around us everywhere and companies have realised that animation does not only capture the eyes of children but it captures the eye of al ages depending on the topic. A lot of companies design animated adverts to catch their target audiences eye and push forward their product a big example of this would be Confused.com By having the confused.com little character it gives us as the audience something to associate that brand with instead of a random face the colours and character stick into out brains and act as a trigger anytime we see it again.
Advertisement Advertisement is also sometimes done in animation because the animation can show what real life action can not. Animation can help show diagrams or anything informative, by doing this it can cut out a lot of stress and speed up the process of explanation. A lot of nutritious products do this in their advertisements to show the good things about their products here are a few examples. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwIiT-M_cHQ&feature=related