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ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM PowerPoint Presentation
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ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

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ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

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  1. ROMANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

  2. Country No. of Units Total MW(e) No. of Units Total MW(e) TW-h % of Total Years Months Argentina 2 935 1 692 6.7 6.2 58 7 Armenia 1 376 2.4 43.5 33 8 Belgium 7 5 824 45.9 54.1 219 7 Brazil 2 1 795 11.7 2.8 33 3 Bulgaria - 2 1 906 2 1 906 13.7 32.1 143 3 Canada 18 12 610 88.2 14.7 546 1 China 11 8 572 5 4 220 59.3 1.9 77 3 Czech Republic 6 3 619 24.6 30.3 98 10 Finland 4 2 696 1 1 600 22.5 28.9 115 4 France 59 63 260 1 1 600 420.1 76.9 1582 2 Germany 17 20 430 133.21 25.9 717 5 Hungary 4 1 829 13.9 36.8 90 2 India 17 3 782 6 2 910 15.9 2.5 284 4 Iran, Islamic Republic of 1 915 Japan 55 47 587 1 866 267.3 27.5 1 331 8 Korea, Republic of 20 17 451 3 2 880 136.6 35.3 299 8 Lithuania 1 1185 9.1 64.4 41 6 Mexico 2 1 360 10.0 4.6 31 11 Netherlands 1 482 4.0 4.1 63 0 Worldwide, there were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation at the end of 2007, totaling 372 GW(e) of generating capacity . In 2007, nuclear power supplied about 14% of the world's electricity. Reactors in Operation Reactors under Construction Nuclear Electricity Supplied in 2007 Total Operating Experience through 2007

  3. Country No. of Units Total MW(e) No. of Units Total MW(e) TWh % of Total Years Months Pakistan 2 425 1 300 2.3 2.3 43 10 Romania 2 1 305 7.1 13.0 11 11 Russian Federation 31 21 743 6 3 639 148.0 16.0 932 4 Slovakia 5 2 034 14.2 54.3 123 7 Slovenia 1 666 5.4 41.6 26 3 South Africa 2 1 800 12.6 5.5 46 3 Spain 8 7 450 52.7 17.4 253 6 Sweden:------- 10 9 034 64.3 46.1 352 6 Switzerland 5 3 220 26.5 40.0 163 10 Ukraine 15 13 107 2 1 900 87.2 48.1 338 6 United Kingdom 19 10 222 57.5 15.1 1419 8 United States of America 104 100 582 1 1 165 806.6 19.4 3 291 9 Total b,c 439 372 208 33 27 193 2 608.1 14 13 036 5 Reactors in Operation Reactors under Construction Nuclear Electricity Supplied in 2007 Total Operating Experience through 2007

  4. Monde : production nette denergie nucléaire en 2006 World: net nuclear energy production for 2006

  5. Monde : production nette denergie nucléaire en 2006 World: net nuclear energy production for 2006

  6. ROMANIAN INSTALL POWER (2006)

  7. 2008 – ROMANIAELECTRICITY GENERATION, by SOURCE-Total produced : 64.772 MWh -

  8. CNE CERNAVODA

  9. CERNAVODA NPP General Site View

  10. CERNAVODA NPP General Site View

  11. CERNAVODA NPP General Site View

  12. CERNAVODA NPP General Site View

  13. WORK PROGRESS FOR CERNAVODA NPPMILESTONES Time Period Type of work 1978 Contracts between AECL (Canada) and Romenergo (Romania) concluded for Nuclear Steam Plant ‑ Unit. l 1979 Start work on Cernavoda site 1980 First concrete ‑ Reactor Building Unit. l 1981 Contracts between Ansaldo (Italy), General Electric (USA) and ROMENERGO (Romania) for Balance of the Plant (BOP)‑ Unit.l and. 2 1982 Governmental decision to increase supply of components from Romania. 1983 Containment perimeter wall sliding complete (Units 1 and 2).

  14. WORK PROGRESS FOR CERNAVODA NPPMILESTONES WORK PROGRESS FOR CERNAVODA NPPMILESTONES Time Period Type of work 1984-1985 Contracts with equipment main suppliers concluded. 1985 Installed Calandria vessel ‑ Unit. 1. 1986 Installed Calandria vessel ‑ Unit. 2. 1989 Fuel channels installation‑ Unit. 1. 1990‑1991 Inspections, repairs and corrective actions. 1991 New Project Management Contract with AECL ‑ Ansaldo Consortium. 1992‑1993 Construction work continued for Unit. 1 Preparation work perform for Units 2‑5 16.04.1996 U1 First criticality 11.07.1996 U1 Grid connection 02.10.1996 U1 Full power

  15. Cernavoda NPP – a clean Source of Electricity In January, 2009, Unit 1 produced 529.131 MWh, out of which 486.972 MWh in the National Power System, at a capacity factor of 101,72%. In 2008, Cernavoda NPP- Unit 1 produced 5.227.976 MWh, out of which 4.805.476 MWh have been supplied in the National Power System, at an average capacity factor of 84,83%, due to planned shut-down in June, 2008. In 2007, Cernavoda NPP- Unit 1 produced 6.005.175 MWh, 5.518.346 MWh being supplied in the National Power System, at a 97,62% factor of capacity. In 2006, the quantity of electricity produced within “Nuclearelectrica” SA National Society, by Cernavoda NPP – Nuclearelectrica Plant Unit 1, was of 5.631.510 MWH. In SEN, 5.177.926 MWh have been supplied, in the conditions in which Unit 1 also supplied the inner consumption services of Unit 2, being, at that date, under testing. More than that, every year, Unit 1 supplied 60 to 80 Gcal for heating services to the consumers living on the industrial platform of the plant, and Cernavoda town. as well ( about 50% out of the required quantity ) at a specific price, the lowest at national level, without affecting the nominal power of the turbo power unit in any way.

  16. REACTOR

  17. 5x700 MWe NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CERNAVODA 1. Reactor Type: - CANDU - PHW, horizontal, with pressure tubes, heavy water moderated and cooled. - fuel - natural UO2 2. Rated Power: - Thermal power: 2180 MWt - Electric power output: 706.494 MWe - Net electric power: 629.846 MWe 3. Purpose: - Electric power production 4. Location: - Cernavoda, Constantza county, Romania 5. Owner: Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) through Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant Branch (FCNE - Cernavoda) 6. Designer and Constructor: - Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects (CITON - Bucharest) Design based on AECL Canada documentation, for the Nuclear part, and ANSALDO Italy documentation, for the classical part. - CNE S.A. Cernavoda - Constructor - Nuclearmontaj S.A., AMEA S.A., TMUCB S.A., Energomontaj S.A. - Installation Works

  18. 7. Today Status of Works (January 2001): Unit 1 - in operation since December 2, 1996 Unit 2 - construction completed about 30% 8. Number of Units:5 9. Reactor: - number of channels: 380 - arrangement of channels: square lattice - core radius: 314.17 cm - core length: 394.36 cm - fuel quantity: 95.76 tons UO2 (4580 fuel elements) - burnup: 180 MWh/kg U (average) 260 MWh/kg U (maximum) 10. Moderator: - D2O inventory: 264.3 tons (concentration 99.75% mol.) - thermal load: 120 MWt - reactor inlet/outlet temperatures: 49/77º C - flow rate: 940 l/sec

  19. 11. Reactor Primary Coolant: - D2O inventory: 199.1 tons (concentration - 99.5% mol.) - thermal load: 2064 MWt - reactor inlet/outlet temperatures: 266/310º C - flow rate: 7.7x103kg/sec - header inlet/outlet pressures: 11.13/9.89 MPa - number of loops: 2, double. 12. Fuel Handling: - number of fuelling machines (FIM): 2 - on-power loading - position as to the reactor: outside 13. Secondary Agent: - fluid: steam - pressure: 4.6 MPa - temperature: 260º C - flow rate: 3758.152 t/h

  20. 14. Turbine - Generator Ass.: - type: condensation, multistage action, axial on one shaft line, consisting of four sections: a double flow high pressure section and three double flow low pressure sections - rated speed: 1500 RPM - number of steam extraction lines: 5 - condenser vacuum: 4 kPa - condenser circulation water flow rate: 46 m3/sec - electrical generator: - rated power: 800 MVA - power factor: 0.9 - rated voltage: 24 KV - stator cooling agent: H2O - rotor cooling agent: H2 15. Instrumentation and Control: - process control is carried-out by two process computers; - measurements are duplicated or triplicated; - plant control: from the Main Control Room (MCR) or, in case of MCR unavailability, the plant is controlled from the Secondary Control Room (SCR).

  21. 16. Nuclear Safety Design Philosophy and Special Systems: - NPP design, construction and operation should provide that the occurance probability of any radioactive release due to any component failure or human error in manoeuvering, is under 10-7 year reactor - prestressed concrete shielding containment (outer diametre - 43.59 m; height - 51.21 m) - emergency core cooling systems - shut-down cooling system no.2 (6 shut-down liquid injection units with boron or gadolinium solution) 17. Layout (for 5 Units) - enclosure area: 40 ha - building occupational rate: 42.2% - overall occupational rate: 81% - installed power related to the enclosure area: 87.5 MWe/ha

  22. RESEARCH REACTORS SCN Pitesti SCN Pitesti is owner of a TRIGA reactor, a pool type reactor, with 2 cores: Steady State Reactor ( SSR ) which operates at maximum 14 MW and Annulus Core Pulse Reactor ( ACPR ), that can give a pulse of 20.000 MW and be operated as a SSR at maximum 500 W. The reactor has been in operation since 1979.

  23. Hot cell operating area The Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory first started operation in 1983; it is has been used to investigate the fuel and the structural materials typical for power reactors. The laboratory in Pitesti is the only one of the kind in the country and one of the most performing at international level.

  24. RESEARCH REACTORS IFIN – Horia Hulubei – Bucuresti - Magurele Since 1957 IFIN – HH is the owner of a VVR – S reactor, thank type, of 2 MW power. Reactor was permanently shut down in 1997 and a governmental decision for decommissioning was issued in 2002

  25. Heavy Water Plant

  26. ROMANIAN experience in D2O fabrication technologybased on water distillation Installations designed, constructed and commissioned by Romanian institutes and Enterprises:

  27. BAITA BIHOR REPOSITORY

  28. BAITA BIHOR REPOSITORY

  29. Main Romanian Energy Players