Chapter 9 Manifest Destiny
Migrating to the West Settling the Spanish Borderlands Main Idea:In the Southwest in the early 1800s, conflict between Spanish settlers and Native Americans was frequent and destructive. However, New Mexico and California eventually gained stability, resulting in high populations and economic growth. Americans Look Westward Main Idea:By 1821, American expansionists soon began to covet New Mexico, Texas, and California. Thinly settled but rich in resources, the three provinces had great appeal for American pioneers. The Journey Westward Main Idea: Following John C. Frémont’s vivid and romantic reports from his western expedition, the overland trails drew thousands of settlers west to California and Oregon. Sec 1: Migrating to the West
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas NOTE TAKING Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas
The Plains Indians • The Spanish and French, and Lewis and Clark all explored the Great Plains. • The vast grassland that lies between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. • There were many different cultural aspects in the Great Plains.
The Importance of Buffalo • They used the: • Hair for making ropes and pads, and for ornamental and ceremonial purposes. • Horns and hoofs for making implements and utensils. • Bones for making soup and articles to be used in their various occupations and games. • Sinews (tendons) for making their sewing thread and their stronger cords such as bowstrings. • Skins for making ropes, tipis, clothing. • Flesh and intestines for food. • Americans tried to kill the Buffalo off to get rid of Indians. • Ever heard of Buffalo Bill? He killed 4,000 in one season alone!
What happens to the Plain Indians • Diseases brought by white traders and settlers made them alter their lives, unless it already killed them. • Surrounding raids from other Indian groups seriously hurt numbers. • Most Indians trailed the buffalo and ran from their enemies. • In 1825, the US Gov’t decides to force Indians to relocate west of the Mississippi.
Indians and Western Migration • US army built forts along this as people migrated west along 95th Meridian (divider of Indian Country – from Louisiana to Minnesota). • US Gov’t established in 1824 the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) • They attempted to extinguish Indian land claims through treaties or yearly payments. • In the 1850’s, the US Gov’t came up with a permanent solution to this problem… RESERVATIONS. • Thousands of Indians became trapped on Reservations. • Were 8 in California by 1858. • Nomadic Indians didn’t want to settle down. • They wanted to follow the buffalo and roam the Great Plains. • Americans wanted to settle down and not have to deal with the Indians. • Result ---- VIOLENCE!
Reservation Life • Awful for warriors. • Had nothing to hunt. • Instead had to farm and do household chores. • Now had to depend on US Gov’t for handouts. • But many white Indian agents were corrupt and sold supplies. • Food was usually rotten bacon. • Instead of eat this and accept Gov’t help… many Indians chose to starve.
Section #2: Hispanic North America • The US Gov’t thought the LA purchase would stay Indian land… settlers had a different plan. • By the 1830’s many white settlers pushed west into Indian territory. • Led to creation of three new states: Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. • Before these new states came into the Union, many Americans were moving west along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. • Isn’t that Spanish land? UH-OH…..
Hispanic North America • Spain’s global power was declining, and their commitment to controlling their lands in the North American southwest was weak. • Remember the Pueblo Revolt where Indians won?!? • Made an uneasy peace with the Comanche and Apache. • The Spanish decided to concentrate on controlling the California territory, and built missionary forts, known as Presidios, along the Pacific coastline to prevent the territory from falling to foreign colonization (GB & Russ).
Southwest Settlement • California thrived for Spain, while settlements in Texas and Mexico weren’t as successful. • Influence of the Spanish missions is still very visible in southwest today. • Spanish settlement in this area was marked by large settlements around the missions, due to powerful nomadic Indians, and harsh landscape. • Depended on Indian labor. • Massive efforts were made to convert the natives to Christianity, and those who refused were exiled or forced to convert.
Spanish Mission Treatment of Indians • Indian laborers usually only got food, clothing or shelter for work. • Priests and soldiers didn’t treat them well. • If they refused to work, they were often whipped or locked in chains. • Some chose to escape. • Those who stayed endured poor living conditions and limited medical care. • Contributed to tragic epidemics of measles and smallpox. • Between 1769 and 1848, the population of Indians in California fell from 300,000 to 150,000. • While Indians number declined, number of Mexico settlers grew!
Mexican Independence • Took 13 years, finally achieved in 1821. • Started with demands for self-gov’t and local uprisings. • 1810, a priest named Miguel Hidalgo, triggered a rebellion that spread throughout Southern Mexico. • Treaty of Cordoba officially granted Mexico its independence from Spain!
What you need to know! • Mexico opens up its border to trade with the USA. • Spain hadn’t allowed foreigners or foreign trade within border provinces. • Mexican Gov’t set two conditions. • Settlers had to convert to Catholicism and become Mexican citizens. • American traders saw an opportunity for profit in the Santa Fe in the province of New Mexico.
Effects of Mexican Independence • Independence definitely had an effect on its citizens. • The new government was hostile towards the Roman Catholic Church and its missions • So they secularized the missions, meaning that they were now under control of the state rather than the church. • By the 1830’s, very few priests were left in Northern Mexico. • Economic reforms widened gaps b/t poor and rich. • Encouraged trade with the United States • By the early 1830’s, the Santa Fe Trail connected American traders from Missouri with the new Mexican capital of Santa Fe.
Trade with the United States • In 1821, William Becknell (a nearly bankrupt American) brought goods from Missouri to the New Mexico capital of Santa Fe…where he sold them for mules and silver coins. • William Becknell – the Father of the Santa Fe Trail • Other Americans followed taking advantage of the commercial opening created by Mexican independence and economic reforms. • High quality and low prices of American goods nearly replaced New Mexico’s trade with the rest of Mexico. • Hello… Santa Fe Trail!!! • US also began to trade with California and Texas.
Section #3: Trails to the West • There were three great trails that lead to the West: 1.) Santa Fe Trail – you have seen already. 2.) Oregon Trail 3.) Mormon Trail
Oregon Country • In early 1800’s – GB, US, Russia and Spain all claimed this as their land. • 1818 – US and GB signed a treaty for joint occupation. • Ignored the Indians that lived there. • Mountain Men • Came to live here. • In search of beaver pelts, they adapted N. American ways and married their women. • Many churches sent missionaries here.
Overland Trails • In 1843, Mtn Men started organize wagon trails to Oregon along the Indian routes. • Groups met in Independence, Missouri. • From there they began their 2,000 miles trek across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains along the Oregon Trail. • Santa Fe Trail also started here in Independence, MO.
Why Move West? • 1.) Land • Could be settled and farmed, or bought and sold for a profit. • 2.) Trade • Attracted merchants with opportunity of wealth. • 3.) Challenge • 4.) Independent Life
The Journey • Could take 4-6 months. • Cost typical family b/t $5000-1,000. • Went through Mountain Passes. • A low spot in a mtn range that allows travelers to cross over to the other side. • Most were part of a family. • Few free African Americans, most were white. • Getting across rivers, through muddy bogs, and up steep hills was hard work! • Boring, but not violent. Spent most time trading, not fighting. • Cholera killed about 4% of the pioneers b/t 1840-1860.
Trying to make it all better… • IN 1846, the US and Great Britain agreed to divide the Oregon Country along the 49th Parallel. • Because of the threat of war with Mexico, this peaceful solution proved to be in the best interest of the United States.
Section #4: From Sea to Sea • In 1846, John O’Sullivan coined the phrase “manifest destiny.” • Meaning it was America’s “obvious or undeniable fate” to spread liberty throughout the continent in a divine mission. • Beliefs of Manifest Destiny are provided below: • 1.) The nation needed more land for its rapidly growing population. • 2.) Americans could bring economic growth and democracy to places where they had never existed before. • 3.) American territorial expansion was blessed by God b/c it was morally right.
Mormons Settle Utah • During the Mexican War, the Mormons were heading west – 1840’s. • Were one of the largest groups to do so. • Mormons, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, had been looking for a permanent home ever since Joseph Smith founded their religion. • Harassed by neighbors due to their belief in polygamy, Mormons moved to Ohio, Missouri, and then Illinois. • Smith was killed due to his practicing polygamy.
Mormons on the Move! • Their new leader, Brigham Young, decided they needed to live beyond borders of U.S. • They chose Great Salt Lake b/c it was away from other Americans. • Within three years of when they left in 1874, 11,000 Mormons settled here. • These settlements were prosperous due to skillful irrigation in desert farming. • Brigham Young was elected Governor when Utah went to US after Mexican War. • Utah became 45th state in the Union in 1896.
Westward Migration, 1840s CHART Chart: Westward Migration 1840s
Brigham Young and the Mormons TRANSPARENCY Transparency: Brigham Young and the Mormons
Texas and the Mexican-American War Texas Wins Independence Main Idea:Tensions grew between American settlers and the Mexican government. Following a rebellion against Mexican rule, Texans declared their independence and adopted a republican constitution. Americans Debate Expansion Main Idea:Sam Houston asked that the United States annex Texas, but many in Congress were opposed because of the impact this would have in the slavery debate. The Mexican-American War Main Idea:Texas claimed the land south and west of the Nueces River as far as the Rio Grande as its own. Outraged, the Mexicans refused to recognize the annexation. The war that followed resulted in an American victory. Sec 2: Texas and the Mexican-American War
Texans seek Independence • Tons of Americans move into Texas! • Steven Austin got permission from the Mexican Gov’t to found a colony of several hundred families in east Texas. • Father of Texas • He led the first organized group of American settlers into Texas in 1822. • By 1824, were 2,000 immigrants were living in Austin’s colony.
American Demands Grow • 1824 Mexican Colonization Law • Americans promised cheap land, protection of Mex Gov’t, & four year tax break if they settled in Texas. • By, twice as many Americans in Texas than Mexicans. • In 1830 Mexican Gov’t said no more 1830 Americans! • And…no importation of slaves • But Americans still came with their slaves. • Americans in Texas were divided by wanting slavery and those not wanting it.
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana • He declared himself dictator of Mexico. • He stripped Texas and other territories of their remaining rights of self-gov’t. • This united Texas under cause of independence. • Everyone wanted independence. • Settlers named Sam Houston, recent immigrant from Tenn, as their commander and chief.
Sam Houston • Sam Houston was a native of Virginia, who learned the Cherokee way of life, and then helped manage their relocation to Arkansas. • Eventually, he used his knowledge of law to fight for Cherokee rights, and served as an advisor to them. • He was sent to Texas by President Jackson to negotiate treaties with the Indians to protect American traders crossing into Mexico. • This put him in position to lead the independence movement for Texas.
Texas winning Independence • General Santa Anna (dictator of Mexico) went into action due to settler’s defiance. • He crossed the Rio Grande with several thousand men and they headed for the ALAMO (a walled fortress in San Antionio). • In December 1835 a group of Texas rebels had ousted Mexican trooops from the Fortress. • The Texans at the Alamo (>200) prepared to meet Santa Anna. • William Travis and James Bowie were their leaders, they wanted to slow S.Anna enough to assemble an army.
The Battle of the Alamo • Lasted 13 days. • Col Travis asked for help “to the people of Texas and all the Americans in the World.” • Texans caused 1-1,600 causalities to Mexicans. • March 6 – Santa Anna made his way in. • He said, “take no prisoners” • When the fighting stopped 180 Texas were dead including leaders, and Davy Crockett. • 15 people were spared, mostly women and children.
Davy Crocket -> William Travis-> • James Bowie ->
What else could happen now?!? • Soon after, 300 Texans surrendered to Mexicans at another presidio, and were subsequently murdered after being granted POW status. • These events stirred great emotion in Texans, and an emotional victory over the Mexican army (to the rallying cry of “Remember the Alamo” occurred, allowing Texas to gain Independence. The further expansion of Whites over the Southwest enraged the Mexican government, increasing the possibility of war. • On March 2, 1836 – The rebels formally declared the founding of an independent Republic of Texas.
The Defeat of Santa Anna • Santa Anna went after the last remaining force led by Sam Houston. • April 21, 1836 – Houston’s forces surprise attacked and defeated Santa Anna in the afternoon. • Battle of San Jacinto, Texans won! • They rallied to cries of, “Remember the Alamo!” • They caught Santa Anna and made him sign a treaty recognizing the Republic of Texas. • Texans elected Sam Houston first President of the Lone Star Republic. • Created a Constitution that said slavery was a-okay!
Events leading to the Texas War for Independence • 1821 – Moses Austin recieves a 200,000 acre land grant from the Spanish gov’t to colonize Texas, in northeastern Mexico. He dies before he organizes the colony. • 1821 – Mexico achieves indepence from Spain. • 1821 – Stephen Austin, Moses’ son, recieves permission from Mexico to carry out his father’s plan. • 1825 – Mexico opens Texas to American settlement. American population in Texas swells. • 1829 – Mexico abolishes slavery.
Events leading to the Texas War for Independence • 1830 – Mexico stops American settlement. Differences between American settlers and the Mexican gov’t increase. • 1834 – General Santa Anna declares himself dictator. • 1835 – Mexico rejects Texas application for statehood. • 1836 – Texas declares independence.
Texas War for Independence TRANSPARENCY Transparency: Texas War for Independence
Time line of Hispanic North America • 1821: Mexico wins independence from Spain • Stephen Austin receives permission from Mexico to bring American Immigrants to Texas for trade • 1825: Mexico opens Texas to American immigration • 1829: Mexico abolishes slavery • 1830: Mexico stops American settlement • 1834: Army general Santa Anna becomes dictator of Mexico • 1835 Mexico rejects Texas application for statehood • 1836 Texans declare independence • Outnumbered Texans lose Battle of the Alamo after fighting bravely for 13 days • Sam Houston leads Texans to victory at Battle of San Jacinto • Santa Anna recognizes Texas independence
The Annexation of Texas • September 1836 – Texas raised a flag with a single star… the Lone Star Republic. • 1836 – Texas asked Congress to be annexed. • US refused their request. • Northern states opposed another slave state b/c balance in Congress would go in the south’s favor. • Some gov’t leaders feared that it would mean war with Mexico. • Santa Anna said that annexation would be “equivalent to a declaration of war against the Mexican Republic.” • President John Tyler (#10) signed the treaty, Congress refused.
Election of 1844 • Annexing Texas was the HOT ISSUE!!! • Henry Clay opposed annexing it. • Didn’t want war with Mexico. <- James K. Polk supported annexing. - He also supported the re- occupation of the northern territory to gain northern support.
Should the United States Annex Texas? DECISION POINT Decision Point: Should the United States Annex Texas?