Chapter 15 Political Culture Lecturer: Tong Dezhi Tianjin Normal University College of Politics and Public Administration
Introduction • 1. Conceptions of Political Culture • 2. Structure of Political Culture • 3. Types of Political Culture • 4. Function of Political Culture • 5. History of the Research
1. Conception of Political Culture • (1) Case: My Family Creeds • (2) Conception Defined by Almond • (3) Other Conceptions • (4) Conclusion
(2) Conception Defined by Almond • Subjective orientation of political system • Elements: • Political cognizance • Political attitude • Political evaluation
(3) Other Conceptions • Political culture may be defined as the political psychology of a country or nation. • Political culture may be defined as the political psychology and political thought. • Political culture may be defined as the political psychology, political thought and political institution.
(4) Conclusion • Political culture is subjective orientation of a political system.
Elements of Political Culture (Almond) • COGNITION = empirical knowledge (how things are) • Example: "A market economy is more productive than a planned economy.“ • ATTITUDE = positive and negative feelings (how things feel) • Example: “President Bush is abominable” • VALUE = normative belief (how things ought to be) • Example: "Individual liberty should be the most important thing” • IDEOLOGY= system of ideas • Example:”Liberalism is the good solution for the social problems ”
Elements of Political Culture (Inglehart) • Aim • Aims of country • Aims of respondent • Most important goals • Political system • Political system • Political parties • Democracy • Attitudes concerning society • Political action • Political action • Who should decide • Others
Preference to Freedom or Equality * Footnote Source: Source
Preference to Order * Footnote Source: Source
Dimensions of political ideology • Increased spending on public housing • Employ minorities • Banning sexually explicit movies • Mandatory testing for AIDS
Cognizance Attitude Ideology Value Cycle of the Elements * Footnote Source: Source
3. Types of Political Culture • (1) participant, in which citizens understand and take part in politics and voluntary associations; • (2) subject, in which citizens largely obey but participate little; • (3) parochial, in which citizens have neither knowledge of nor interest in politics.
3. Almond's Three Publics • 1. A general public of a majority. The kind of public does not know or care about much beyond their immediate concerns. For example, they show little interest in foreign policy unless the country is in a war or international crisis. • 2. An attentive public of a minority. They are better educated and followed more abstract political concerns in the field of foreign policy. • 3. A policy and opinion elite of a few highly influential people. They are involved in politics, often professionally.
Map of Civilizations * Footnote Source: Source
Types of Political Culture (Inglehart) * Footnote Source: Source
Cultural heterogeneity/ Sub-cultures Fragmented
Affect a Polity’s Stability • Political systems that possess cultures that are homogeneous with respect to regime and community are “integrated.” They are likely to be more stable than systems that lack such integration
Public Opinion • Democracy and Good Governance • Making Decisions • Public Policy
5. History of the Research • Key scholars on political culture • Key books on political culture
Key Scholars on Political Culture • Gabriel Almond • Sidney Verba • Lucian Pye • Samuel Huntington • Robert Putnam • Ronald Ingerhart
Key Books on Political Culture • Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations (1963) • Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, The Civic Culture Revisited (1980) • Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1993) • Samuel P. Huntington，The Clash of Civilizations And The Remaking Of World Order (1996) • Robert Dahl, Ian Shapiro, and Jose Antonio Cheibub, The Democracy Sourcebook, Cambridge: the MIT Press, 2003, pp.168-180.