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Thesis Writing

Thesis Writing. Atty. Charito M. Macalintal-Sawali. Research. Searching for a theory, for testing theory, or for solving a problem Experience, authority, inductive and deductive reasoning may also solve problems but their procedures are not considered scientific . Scientific Research.

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Thesis Writing

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  1. Thesis Writing Atty. Charito M. Macalintal-Sawali

  2. Research • Searching for a theory, for testing theory, or for solving a problem • Experience, authority, inductive and deductive reasoning may also solve problems but their procedures are not considered scientific

  3. Scientific Research • A systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena • It is systematic when it follows steps or stages that begin with identification of the problem, relating this problem with existing theories, collection of data, analysis and interpretation of these data, drawing of conclusions and integration of the these conclusions into the stream of knowledge. • It is controlled unlike ordinary problems which may be solved cursorily.

  4. Scientific research continued… • It is planned every step of the way that fancy and guess work do not set in. • The problem is defined thoroughly, variables identified and selected, instruments carefully selected or constructed, and conclusion drawn only from the data yielded. • Recommendations are based on the findings and conclusions. • The empirical data will form the bases for conclusions. • Since everything is controlled, any observer of the investigation will develop full confidence in the results.

  5. Scientific research continued… • Due to the control employed in the research, exact and precise outcomes are expected. • The whole work is ready for critical analysis by a panel of judges that passes judgment on the entire research.

  6. Problem • It exists when: • 1) there is an absence of information resulting in a gap in our knowledge; • 2) there are contradictory results; • 3) a fact exists and you intend to make your study explain it.

  7. Sources of a problem • 1. experience and observations • 2. the vast amount of literature in one’s field • 3. courses that one has taken • 4. journals, books, magazines or abstracts • 5. theses and dissertations • 6. professors and classmates of the researcher

  8. Characteristics of a good problem • The topic should be of great interest to the researcher • It should be useful for the concerned people in a particular field • It should be novel • It should lend itself to complex designing • It should be completed in the allotted time • It should not carry ethical or moral impediments

  9. Sharpening skills in discovering and identifying a problem • Reading a lot of literature in one’s field of concentration and being critical of what one reads • Attending professional lectures • Being a close observant of situations and happenings around • Thinking out the possibility of research for most topics or lessons taken in content courses • Attending research colloquiums

  10. Sharpening continued… • Conducting mini-researches and noting the obtained findings closely • Visiting various libraries for possible discovery of researchable topics • Subscribing to journals in one’s field and in research • Building up a library of materials in the field

  11. Steps to be taken after the topic had been chosen • Make the topic more specific and definitive • Start defining major terms in the title • Survey the literature

  12. Formulating the statement of the problem • The statement of the problem must be consistent with the title and should be stated in a declarative sentence. • This declarative sentence will be followed by specific questions which should be written in quantifiable terms. • The specificity of the questions will ascertain just what questions are needed to be answered.

  13. Writing the title of the investigation • Functions of a title: • It draws in summary form the content of the entire investigation • It serves as a frame of reference for the whole thesis • It enables the researcher to claim the title as his own • It helps other researchers to refer to the work for possible survey of theory

  14. Title continued… • Thus, the title must be written clearly and specifically. • The main concepts should be included. • The variables being investigated should be written as part of the title. • The title should include the variables studied, the relationship among variables and the target population.

  15. Title continued… • Twenty substantive words, function words not included, is the maximum allowable length of a title.

  16. Hypothesis • A tentative explanation for certain behaviors, phenomena or events which have occurred or will occur • A tentative conclusion that the researcher expects to be the result of his investigation • The null hypothesis means no existence of an effect, an interaction, of relationships, or of difference • The alternative hypothesis is considered the operational statement of the research hypothesis

  17. Variable • A characteristic that has two or more mutually exclusive values or properties • The construct or property being studied • A dependent variable is the outcome or objective of the study or the result • An independent variable is the property or characteristic that makes the outcome or objective vary or differ.

  18. Assumptions • A statement or anticipated conclusion • Any important fact presumed to be true but not actually verified • Does not need testing, unlike the hypothesis

  19. Scope and limitations • The scope of the investigation defines where and when the study was conducted and who the subject were • The scope sets the delimitations and establishes the boundaries of the study • A limitation is a phase or aspect of the investigation which may affect the result adversely but over which the researcher has no control; must be declared by the researcher honestly

  20. Definition of terms • Necessary in research in order for the researcher and the reader to be thinking in terms of the same thing • Conceptual definition or constitutive is that which is given in dictionaries; academic or universal meaning attributed to a word or group of words • Operational definition is also known as functional definition

  21. Review of Related Literature • Involves the systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem • It has the following functions: • Provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research; • Provides information about past researches related to the intended study; • Gives one a feeling of confidence since by means of the review of related literature one will have on hand all constructs related to the study;

  22. Functions of a Review of Literature continued… • Gives one information about the research methods used, the population and sampling considered , the instruments used in gathering the data and the statistical computation in previous research; and • Provides findings and conclusions of past investigations which you may relate to your own findings and conclusions.

  23. Research Literature • Refers to published or unpublished reports of actual research studies done previously

  24. Conceptual Literature • Pertains to articles or books written by authorities giving their opinions, experiences, theories or ideas of what is good and bias, desirable and undesirable within the problem area

  25. Related Literature • The library is usually the source or both conceptual and research literature. • It is suggested that a researcher starts reviewing conceptual literature first since it is more readily available than research literature. • The card catalog is to a library as the index is to a book. However, there are varied kinds of indexes that can help one to get access to information. • Theses and dissertations, as well as abstracts, are other sources of the literature. • There must be a critical analysis on the present work and the related literature showing the relation between two sets of researches.

  26. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework • Framework, as defined by the dictionary, is a skeletal or structural frame, a foundation that provides base and support. • Theoretical means relating to or having the characteristics of a theory. • Theoretical framework, therefore, refers to the “set of interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables.” • Theoretical framework becomes the basis of the research problem. • It explains the phenomena upon which the thesis investigation hopes to fill the vacuum in the stream of knowledge. • Usually found before the statement of the problem. • On the basis of the theoretical framework, the problem and the questions are introduced followed by the statements of hypothesis.

  27. Conceptual and Research Literature • Consists of concepts, definitions and propositions that the researcher has gathered from the process of reviewing the related literature • Most researchers use theoretical and conceptual framework, interchangeably.

  28. Research Methodology and Design • Specifies every and all methods used or to be used in proposed research. • Historical research • History is an integrated narrative of past events which aims at the critical search for the whole truth. It is both science and art in that it involves research which is science and it employs a cohesive, masterful style of narration which is art. It is regarded as much more than just a chronicle of the impressive events of the past; its data find applicability to contemporary issues and problems.

  29. Historical research… • This involves three major procedures. In data collection, documents and remains come as the chief primary sources. They are the first witnesses to a fact, hence they are the only solid bases for historical investigation. Secondary sources, where more than one mind intervenes between the producer of the data and user of these data, also contribute in giving information in the unavailability of primary sources. A system of note-taking is necessary to have an orderly record of the data collected.

  30. Descriptive Method of Research • The principal aims in employing the descriptive method are to describe the nature of a situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular phenomena. • Descriptive research is of several types, namely: case studies, surveys, developmental studies, follow-up studies, documentary analyses, trend analyses and correlational studies.

  31. Descriptive Method continued… • Case study • Involves studying one person or just a few persons over a considerable period of time; entails discovering and studying all the important variables which have contributed to the history of the subject

  32. Descriptive Research continued… • Surveys • Involve relatively large number of cases. They are classified into four categories according to scope and subject matter: census of intangibles, census of tangibles, sample surveys of tangibles and sample surveys of intangibles.

  33. Descriptive Research continued… • Developmental studies • Use longitudinal and cross- sectional methods. Longitudinal method studies the same sample participants over an extended period of time while the cross- sectional method studies participants of various characteristics at the same point in time.

  34. Descriptive research continued… • Follow-up study • Employed when you intend to investigate the subsequent development of the participants after a specified treatment or condition.

  35. Descriptive Research continued… • Documentary analysis • Involves gathering data by examining records and documents.

  36. Descriptive research continued… • Trend analysis • Involves studies that seek future status; employed in studies which aim to project the demands or needs of the people in the future.

  37. Descriptive research continued… • Correlational studies • Designed to determine the extent to which different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. One can determine how much variation is caused by one variable in relation with the variation caused by another variable.

  38. Presentation and Analysis of Data This portion of the thesis presents the findings and the discussions concerning them. The thesis is expected to discuss why such results came out. It is also where the researcher compare his findings with those of previous researchers. The present findings may confirm or reject those of the past. The discussion must be presented in a very clear, accurate and logical terms. The specific questions or the hypotheses stated in the early part of the thesis may serve as the organizing points. Variables which are tied to the questions are included in the discussions.

  39. Continuation… • The discussion of the results or findings must be complete and relevant. There should be a thorough interpretation of all results and findings, and not just mere run down of the results and/or statistical results without critical analysis. • Tables, graphs and other graphic devices maximize the lucidity of the presentation. But caution should be exercised so that the sequence of the appearance of these graphic devices will not in any way distract the flow of discussions.

  40. Continuation… • The reader should not find difficulty in looking for the tables. If these tables are short, they may be integrated into the text. This arrangement poses sequence easily understood by the reader so that confusion regarding location of the table may be avoided. On no condition should any table appear on an earlier page that its first presentation in the text.

  41. Continuation… • The tables are helpful in summarizing a great bulk of figures. They also help in organizing the findings or grouping the results. The tables should not be complex, so that if in one table there is complexity of presentation this should be presented in two simple tables. The best qualities of a table are visibility and readability.

  42. Continuation… • In most theses, the presentation of data and the analysis are integrated with the interpretation and discussion. Others provide for a separate chapter for the presentation and analysis of data and another chapter, for the discussion. Such will be a matter of style on the part of the researcher.

  43. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations • The summary puts together the highlights of the important findings of the investigation. Guided by the questions, the researcher should only include the highlights of the answers in the summary of findings. While in the presentation of data, he is meticulously introducing them point by point, here the researcher is writing bigger chunks of information.

  44. Continuation… • The conclusion is an abstraction drawn from the summary of findings and it is tied to the questions investigated. • Recommendations and implications come next in the research report. Mostly, recommendations and implications are geared towards education and practical utility. • The recommendations and implications allow freer thinking for the reason that as long as there is logical link between the data, conclusions and the recommendations, one is free to write down what he wishes to recommend. • Suggestions for further research end this chapter. These are areas to be researched which are usually oof-shoots of the present investigation.

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