4.01Fashion Merchandising Identify basic textile fibers, fabrics, and their characteristics.
Part I 1. Fiber • Is the basic unit that makes fabric • Is the smallest unit in a textile (fabric) • Denier is the thickness or diameter of a fiber. 2 Types • Natural Fibers • Manufactured Fibers
2. Natural Fibers • Comes from natural sources, such as plants and animals. • Natural fibers derived from plants are cellulosic. • Protein fibers are derived from animals or insects. Some natural fibers are: Cotton, Silk, Wool, Flax or Linen, Leather, and Fur
3. Cotton • The most widely used of all natural fibers. • A soft, white, downy fiber that is strong and durable, cool to wear, and is commonly used in underwear and socks.
4. Silk • The fine, lustrous fiber that comes from the cocoon of a worm. • An animal fiber.
5. Wool • The natural fiber that forms the coat of sheep and is commonly used in coats and blankets. • Warmest of all natural fibers. • An animal fiber.
6. Flax or Linen • Comes from the stem of a flax plant. • Linen is made by weaving or knitting flax fiber into fabric.
7. Leather • A tough, flexible material made by preserving animal hides through a process called tanning.
8. Fur • The soft, hair coat of an animal used primarily for coats, outwear and trimmings.
9. Manufactured Fibers • Fibers that are man-made and begin as thick liquids. • Created by combining various substances with chemicals. Some manufactured fibers are: Polyester, Nylon, Acetate, Spandex, and Acrylic
10. Polyester • A manufactured fiber made from coal or petroleum, often blended with other fibers, and has great washability. • Disposable plastic bottles are recycled into polyester fiber and is used to make fabric for t-shirts and filling for pillows.
11. Nylon • The first manufactured fiber made totally from chemicals.
12. Acetate • A manufactured fiber is silky and luxurious and is often used in neckties and lingerie.
13. Spandex • Known for its ability to stretch • Easily damaged by chlorine bleach
14. Acrylic • Resembles wool • Soft and warm
Part II 15. Fabric Construction • Yarns are made from fibers twisted together or laid side by side to form a continuous strand. • Blends are created by combining different fibers into one yarn
16.Turning Yarn into Fabric • Grain: the direction of the lengthwise and crosswise yarns or threads in a woven fabric. • Bias: the diagonal grain of a fabric. The bias provides the greatest “give” or stretch in the fabric.
Turning Yarn into Fabric (cont.) • Warp yarns: Yarns that run lengthwise in woven fabric. • Weft yarns: yarns that run crosswise in woven and knitted fabric.
17. Weaving • Interlaces two sets of yarns that are at right angles to each other to make fabric. 3 Basic Types Plain, Twill, and Satin
18. Plain Weave • The simplest of all weaves.
19. Twill Weave • Creates diagonal ridges on the surface of the fabric resulting in a strong and durable fabric such as denim. • Denim is a twill weave.
20. Satin Weave • Satin weave produces a smooth, shiny surfaced fabric.
21. Knitting • A method of constructing fabrics by looping yarns together. • The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric is gauge.
22. Nonwoven Fabric • Constructed by compacting fibers together using a combination of moisture, heat chemicals, friction, and/or pressure. Felt
Part III 23. Fabric Finishing • Finishing - applying colors, design or surface treatments that change the look, feel, or performance of fabric. • Mechanical and chemical - the two categories of finishes applied to fabric, yarn or fibers to change the appearance, performance, or feel.
Fabric Finishing (cont.) • Bleaching – the chemical process that remove color, impurities, or spots from fibers.