lecture by chris ross n.
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Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication

Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication

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Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication

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  1. Lecture by: Chris Ross Chapter 3: Nonverbal Communication

  2. Nonverbal Communication => is everything that communicates a message but does not include words. • Facial expression • Gestures • Dress • Timing • Position • Tone of voice • Eye contact • Smell • Etc What is Nonverbal Communication

  3. Two Sides of Nonverbal Communication • Decoding => draw meaning from something you observe • Encoding => put your feelings into behavior through nonverbal communication What is Nonverbal Communication

  4. Two Modes of Nonverbal Communication • Static (Fixed)=> the elements of an interaction that do not change during its course. (Ex: furniture in a room) • Dynamic (Changeable) => movement and change during the course of the interaction (Ex: bodily movement or position of someone playing poker) What is Nonverbal Communication

  5. Symbolic Guided by Rules Cultural Personal Ambiguous Less Controlled Continuous How Nonverbal Communication Works

  6. Symbolic • Tend to be polysemic and can be difficult to decide what their intended meanings are. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  7. Guided by Rules • Social norms can dictate what nonverbal communication you can use in situations • Rules can help evaluate a situation • Rules tend to be learned through your interactions with others How Nonverbal Communication Works

  8. Cultural • Different cultures have various levels of what nonverbal communication is appropriate. • Ex: Eye contact is not always acceptable in all cultures. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  9. Personal • You can assign your own personal meanings behind the nonverbal symbols used. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  10. Ambiguous • Many times people can be uncertain of what the nonverbal communication means. They look to other aspects of the communication event for clairity. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  11. Less Controlled • You cannot always control your physical reaction like you can your verbal reaction to an event. (Ex: you might be able to hold in vocalizing dislike for someone, but your facial expression shows the dislike). • Leakage => nonverbal communication that occurs without your full awareness and reveal how you really feel. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  12. Continuous • You always are communicating nonverbally with people whether you realize it or not. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  13. Nonverbal communication may repeat your verbal communication in the nonverbal format. Nonverbal messages can be substituted for verbal messages when needed. Nonverbal messages can emphasize a verbal message Interactions with verbal communication

  14. Nonverbal messages can moderate verbal messages (play down what is being said). Nonverbal messages can contradict what is being verbally communicated. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  15. Regulators => nonverbal actions that indicate to others how you want them to behave or what you want them to do. • When you want to be left alone, you may cross your arms over your chest, look down and frown. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  16. Kendon & Ferber’s Five basic stages of a greeting ritual • Sighting & Recognition • Distant Salutation • Lowering your head & Averting your gaze • Close Salutation • Backing Off • Occurs when you & another person first see each other • Used to say hello w/ a wave • Approach the other person, breaking eye contact • Involves a type of physical contact • Taking a step back or turning to the side for more open space

  17. Transmits Emotional Information • Attitude towards other person: if you show anxiety in your face, maybe the person makes you uncomfortable. • Attitude towards situation: if you fidget or cannot make eye contact it could show nervousness. • Attitude towards self: you can come across as arrogant via their facial expression, vocal tone and posture for example. How Nonverbal Communication Works

  18. Proxemics Kinesics Vocalics Chronemics Haptics Elements of Nonverbal communication

  19. Proxemics => the study of space and distance in communication Elements of Nonverbal communication

  20. Proxemics • Territoriality => establishment and maintenance of space you claim for personal use. (Ex: Table space in class) • Primary territory => space that you own or have principal control over (Ex: Your life). Elements of Nonverbal communication

  21. Proxemics • Public territory => space open to everyone but available for your sole temporary occupation (Ex: Seat on a public bus) • Personal space => space legitimately claimed or occupied by a person for the time being Elements of Nonverbal communication

  22. Proxemics • Body buffer zone => imaginary aura around people that they regard as part of themselves (Ex: “You’re in my bubble!”) Elements of Nonverbal communication

  23. Proxemics and Hall’s Four Types of Personal Space • Intimate distance: 18 inches • Personal distance: 18-48 inches • Social distance: 48-144 inches • Public distance: 12-25 feet Elements of Nonverbal communication

  24. Kinesics => refers to the movement that takes place during the course of an interaction. • Posture • Gesture • Illustrators • Eye Contact Elements of Nonverbal communication

  25. Kinesics • Posture => position of your body during an interaction. • Conveys three attitudes: about self, others and situation. Elements of Nonverbal communication

  26. Kinesics • Gesture => defined as a movement of the body or any of its parts in a way that conveys an idea or intention or displays a feeling or an assessment of the situation. • Can be split broadly into two sorts: those that are not expressed in words (emblems) and those that signal something in words (illustrations). Elements of Nonverbal communication

  27. Kinesics • Illustrators => directly related to speech as it is being spoken and are used to visualize or emphasize its content. (Ex: Discussing how to use a baseball bat and showing the person how to swing). Elements of Nonverbal communication

  28. Kinesics • Eye Contact => refers to the extend to which you look directly into the eyes of another person. • Gaze => a rewarding look by one person who is looking at another. Elements of Nonverbal communication

  29. Vocalics => (sometimes called paralanguage) refers to vocal characteristics that provide information about how verbal communication should be interpreted and how you are feeling. • Ex: The tone you use to express anger Elements of Nonverbal communication

  30. Vocalics • Can use ton or pitch to emphasize parts of sentence to denote importance. • Use of rate to stress importance • Silence can be used to convey messages as well Elements of Nonverbal communication

  31. Vocalics • Backchannel Communication => vocalizations by a listener that give feedback to the speaker to show interest, attention or a willingness to listen. • Turn taking => when yuou hand over speaking to another person. Elements of Nonverbal communication

  32. Chronemics => encompasses use and evaluation or time in your interactions, including the location of events in time. • Emotions can impact chronemics. Boring lectures seem to take forever, but a meaningful conversation with a good friend can fly by. Elements of Nonverbal communication

  33. Haptics => study of the specific nonverbal behaviors involving touch Elements of Nonverbal communication

  34. Haptics/Heslin’s Functions of Touch • Functional/Professional: touch is permitted by context (Ex: Medical exam) • Social/Polite: Touch is formal (Ex: Handshake) • Friendship/Warmth: Touch is an expression of regard. • Love/Intimacy: Touch is special, only allowed with those you are close. Elements of Nonverbal communication

  35. Nonverbal communication is related to the words used with it. It can impact what is sad and understood. Nonverbal communication has a relationship with other nonverbal messages. Nonverbal messages can be interpreted on its context Nonverbal interpretation is affected by the relationship to the other person. Interacting System of Nonverbal Communication

  36. Speaker/Encoder Listener/decoder • Affirming • Blending • Consistency • Directness • Emotional Clarity • Attending • Bonding • Coordinating • Detecting/Decoding • Encouraging Improving Use of Nonverbal Communication

  37. Discussions • How does nonverbal communication regulate interactions? • How can you improve your use of nonverbal communication? Chapter Assignments

  38. Buddy/Group Work • Ask your friends how good they believe themselves to be at determining when other people are not telling the truth • In a group play two truths and a lie. Each person will write down two things that are true and one lie. Another person will read the statements about someone. Watch them and ask follow up questions. Can you figure out through their nonverbals if they are lying to you? Chapter Assignments

  39. Written Work • How do television shows use the placement of furniture to add something to the story? • If a member of another culture is breaking a rule of nonverbal communication in your culture, should you tell them? Why or why not? • Look at television or news stories involving police putting someone in a car. What percentage of the police touch the person’s head? In what other circumstances, if any, do people open the car door for someone else and then touch the person’s head who is getting in? What do you think they are trying to convey? Chapter Assignments