United States PolicyMexico/Texas Territory 1830s • Factors Affecting US Policy • Manifest Destiny • Economic Potential • Slavery in Texas
Manifest Destiny • Belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent • During this period various American leaders sought to acquire the Oregon Country, Texas, and Mexico.
Economic Potential • Texas as a producer of corn, grain, and beef • Texans sought to produce cotton to capitalize on demand throughout Europe and the United States • Vast Area (currently 2nd in US)
Slavery in Texas • Texas was a practitioner of slavery • Democratic Party of power in US • American leaders reluctant to add another slave state to the Union • Slavery threatened to divide the Democratic Party
Conclusion in Summary • Manifest Destiny promoted United States expansion from “sea to sea”. Despite controversy American leaders made various attempts to purchase the territory from Mexico, but it was not so important as to take forcefully.
Mexican Policy of Expanding into Texas • Mexican War of Independence • 1824 Constitution of Mexico • EmpresarialGrant • Outlawed American Immigration
The Alamo Battleground Layout/OAKOC
Background • In December 1835 • Ben Milam • Five days of house-to-house fighting • Forced General Martin Perfecto de Cos and his soldiers to surrender.
OAKOC NOTE • The enemy forces will the Mexican soldiers. • The friendly forces will be the Texians and Tejanos
Obstacles Mexican Army Texans and Tejanos The final assault occurred before daybreak, and the darkness was an obstacle. It would have been hard to see the enemy approaching. During the battle, the Texans were forced to lean over the walls to shoot. • When the Mexican Army arrived, they faced a foe that was already inside a fort. The Texans and Tejanos knew they were coming, and could watch for them coming across the land. • There were barricaded doors they had to blast through.
Avenues of Approach Mexican Army Texans and Tejanos Were inside the Alamo, and used cannons and small arms fire. • In columns, approached in the predawn darkness and headed for Alamo’s walls. • Scaled walls and rushed the compound, making it difficult for Texans • Breached Alamo’s north wall, east wall, and a low parapet by the chapel
Key Terrain Mexican Army Texiansand Tejanos Initially, they were inside the Alamo Could fire down on Mexicans • Could use all of outdoors to gain the advantage • Came up walls and used ladders to attack those who were leaning over the walls • Eventually controlled all outer walls and interior of Alamo (except church and rooms along E and W walls)
Observation and Fields of Fire Mexican Army Texians and Tejanos From inside the Alamo Could fire down toward the Mexican Army Was limited to the movements within the Alamo Fired through holes carved into walls • From outside the Alamo • Consisted of firing upwards towards the Texians and Tejanos • Also had to blast through barricaded doors • Often limited due to their column formations
Cover and Concealment Mexican Army Texians and Tejanos Consisted of the Alamo walls and different areas within the Alamo Was constricted and nonexistent once doors were burst through and Alamo was infiltrated • Had concealment of surrounding walls or trees/shrubbery • Once near Alamo, had concealment of outer walls
References • James Bowie: Texas Fighting Man • Hopewell, Clifford
Bowie Beginnings • Family originated in Northern Ireland • Immigrated to Maryland around 1705 • Eventually splintered into South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Louisiana, and Canada.
James “Jim” Bowie • Born: April 10, 1796 to Rezin and Elve Bowie • Second youngest of 10 children • Father sold land in Kentucky and moved to Louisiana by the time Jim was 6. lLegendsofamerica.com
Louisiana • Settled on BushleyBayou • Louisiana Purchase has yet to happen, still under Spanish rule. • Jim learned to speak and write French and Spanish.
Childhood • Learned to use guns, knives, and to fish to survive. • Planted, cultivated, and harvested crops. • Responsible for the care of farm animals. • Attended alligator hunts. • Reported to have ridden alligators at one time.
Independent Jim Bowie • Moved to Rapides Parish, Louisiana • Cleared land and supported himself by selling lumber. • Given ten servants, horses, and cattle by his father around 1818. • Successfully operated a plantation and developed multiple estates.
Lafitte the Pirate • 1818 Jim Bowie met Jean Lafitte and learned of money making opportunities in Galveston, TX • Jim sold his land and sawmill. • Began picking up slaves in Galveston from Lafitte and smuggled them into Louisiana. Boliviarchamber.org
Land Speculation • 1826 – Started speculating land in Louisiana. • Quickly made thousands of dollars selling land claims. • 1827- Many claims went before the courts. • 117 claims confirmed then appealed. • 1831 – Most claims ruled fraudulent and then confirmed in 1833. • Jim Bowie had already left for Texas by this time.
Beginning of a Fighting Man • Alexandria, Louisiana business headquarters. • 1826 – Bowie sought a loan to avoid foreclosure on some land • Loan rejected by Maj. Norris Wright • Crossed paths in the street and Wright shot at Bowie • Bowie attempted to kill Wright with his hands until friends intervened.
Bowie Knife • Fight with Wright. • Swore to wear his knife for the rest of his life. • Multiple stories to “Bowie” knife origination. • Knife that killed Maj, Norris Wright. • 9.25 inches long and 1.5 inches wide. Wikipedia.org
Texas • Moved to Texas in 1828 • Land speculation • Land speculation challenged in Louisiana. • Began meeting future figures of Texas Government • Stephen F. Austin, Sam Houston • Settled in San Antonio de Bexar • Mostly Mexican population.
Texas 1828 Latinalista.net
Texas cont.… • Continued less-than-honest land speculation in Texas • Emigrants applied for land grants, Bowie paid the fees, but took ½ of the land for himself. • Continued selling land in Louisiana • April 25, 1838 – Married Mari Ursula de Veramendi • Daughter of vice-governor of Coahuila-Texas.
Texas cont.… • Searched for silver mines • Had many battles with Native Americans • Added to his notoriety of being a fighting man • Member of Mexican legislature in 1835 • General Santa Anna order arrest of all Americans legislature.
A Changed Man • Texans were wanting independence from Mexico • Bowie had little to gain from independence. • Cholera was spreading through the country. • Sent family to Monclova for safety. • Wife was pregnant. • Plaque struck and entire family died. • Began drinking heavily
A Changed Man cont.… • Filled his time with work • 1834 – Constant travel from Louisiana, Mississippi, and, Mexico. • October 5, 1835 Texas War for Independence begins.
The War • Stephen F. Austin referred to Bowie as Colonel Bowie • Never officially received a commission. • Order to accompany Captain Fannin • Select a secure position near San Antonio de Bexar. • Battle of Concepcion • Texas lost 1, Mexico lost 10 men
The Alamo • Jan 19 1836 Bowie and approx. 30 men arrived at the Alamo and joined another force of 104. • Few weapons and few cannons. • Jan 22, reports of Santa Anna marching on Texas with 4500 troops • Jan 27, General Ramirez y Sesma was headed for San Antonio
The Alamo Latinamericanstudies.org
The Alamo cont.. • Bowie letters to Governor Smith • Requested men, money, rifles, and cannon powder • “the salvation of Texas depends on great measure on keeping Bexar out of the hands of the enemy.” • “Colonel Neill and myself have come to the solemn resolution that we will rather die in these ditches than give it up to the enemy.” • -Jim Bowie
The Alamo cont.… • Lt Col. Travis left in charge by Colonel Neill • Disagreements between Bowie and Travis • The Garrison voted Bowie in charge. • Personal Truce • Travis commanded the regular army • Bowie commanded the volunteers
Ill health… • During his time at the Alamo Bowie suffered from an unknown illness • Described as tuberculosis, pneumonia, and typhoid fever. • Feb 21 – Fell from a scaffold mounting cannon • Crushed ribs and hips • Command solely with Travis. • Confined to bed • Reportedly crawled out of bed everyday to see men and raise moral.
Death • March 6 1936 Mexican troops launched final attack on the Alamo. • Orders were given to identify the bodies of Bowie, Travis, and Crockett. • Died in his cot • Back braced against the wall with pistols and his knife in his hands.