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Environment and Security

Environment and Security

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Environment and Security

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  1. Environment and Security A Cultural Theory Perspective By Dipak Gyawali and Ajaya Dixit

  2. Social Sciences serving which solidarity? • Liberal Economics serves individual market interests • Law serves procedural interests of hierarchic bureaucracies, national and international • Anthropology is of interest to the critical solidarity of activist egalitarians • ‘International Relations’ has the nation state as the unit of analysis and has difficulties in sub-national or trans-national levels

  3. Why a new social science approach? • Development hijacked • “Sustainability” nebulous

  4. Why not replace “sustainable development” with “security”? • Whose security? • How do different solidarities perceive their security?

  5. Institutional Environments and Their Cosmologies + GRID (Strong Ascription/Inequality) Conscripted Hierarchical Limits COPE Myth of Nature: Capricious Myth of Nature: within Limits MANAGE Strategy: Coping Strategy: Control Vision: Day-to-day Vision: Practical Risk Averse - GROUP + GROUP ISOLATE HERMIT (Weak Affinity/Unfettered Competition) (Strong Affinity/Fettered Competition) Individualistic Egalitarian/Communard COMMODITIZE TABOO Myth of Nature: Capricious Myth of Nature: Fragile/Ephenmeral Strategy: Freedom Strategy: Alarm Vision: Risk Taking Strategy: Millenial - GRID Sources: 1. Mary Douglas 1992 “Risk and Blame”; Routledge, London. 2. Michael Thompson, Aaron Wildavsky and Richard Ellis 1990 “Cultural Theory”; Westview, Boulder, Colorado.

  6. Order and Disjunctions Rule of Law Development Input (Foreign Aid) Equitable and Just Tax Real Transparent Exercise of Power Government Rule of Individuals Phantom Rent Seeking State Conspiratorial Exercise of Power Uncontested Terrain Government monopolizes Social Service State feels threat from independent NGOs Government runs inefficient “crony capitalism” business. Phantom Market prevails Contested Terrain of Human Choice Market Civil Society Real (Competitive) Phantom (Distorted) Genuine Phantom Fiscal Transparency Monopolies Fronts for Business and Politics Sufficient Players Formal/Informal Divide Diversity of Trustees Equal Information Exchange Control and Multiple Rates Degree of Voluntariness Modesty in Operating Expenses Level Playing Field License Raj (Tariffs, Quotas, Permits)