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Lunar Power Peaks

Lunar Power Peaks

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Lunar Power Peaks

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  1. Lunar Power Peaks Rajeev Shrestha ASTE 527

  2. Power requirements Sources: 2006 International Space University Study, 2005 NASA Glenn Report (Kerslake) Lunar Power Peaks

  3. MM 150 km Shackleton 400 km Source: U.S. Geological Survey

  4. Concept • Laser transmitters and photovoltaic receivers • No towers, no cables • Power from central base to outposts, mobile assets • Receivers double as backup solar collectors Lunar Power Peaks

  5. LASER Source: Jefferson Lab Lunar Power Peaks

  6. Horizon R = 1738 km Case 1: Peak-to-ground v1 = 8 km v2 = 0 km Max line of sight = 167 km Case 2: Peak-to-peak v1 = 8 km v2 = 8 km Max line of sight = 334 km Lunar Power Peaks

  7. 150 km MM MM 300 km Shackleton Shackleton 175 km 200 km Source: U.S. Geological Survey

  8. Power Beaming: Old News? • 1968: SSP (Glaser) • 1991: SELENE • 2008: Mankins Experiment • 2008: Powerbeam Difference • No satellites • Not solar • Not from Earth • kW not GW • Distance (efficiency 1/r^2) Microwave power transmitters from Mankins’s experiment in May 2008. Lunar Power Peaks

  9. Issues • Size • Mass • Not TRL 9 • Installation on “peaks” • Interference Lunar Power Peaks

  10. Future Applications • Global network • Beaming to Earth • Beaming to spacecrafts Lunar Power Peaks

  11. References Bussey, et al. Lunar Polar Illumination What We Know & What We Don’t. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Nov 2004. D. Cooke. Exploration System Mission Directorate: Lunar Architecture Update. AIAA Space 2007. 20 Sept 2007. International Space University. Luna Gaia: A closed loop habitat for the moon. 2006. Mckay, McKay, and Duke. Space Resources: Energy Power and Transport. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 1992. P. D. Lowman Jr., B. L. Sharpe, and D. G. Shrunk. Moonbase Mons Malapert? Aerospace America. Oct. 2008. R. J. De Young et al. Enabling Lunar and Space Missions by Laser Power Transmission. NASA Langley Research Center. T. W. Kerslake. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions. NASA Glenn Research Center. April 2005. Lunar Power Peaks

  12. Backup Slides

  13. South Pole Illumination Source: JHU/APL (Bussey et al.) Lunar Power Peaks

  14. Distances • Efficieny 1/r^2 • Earth to Moon: 360,000 – 410,000 km • Earth GEO: 36,000 km • Min. orbit altitude for space-based power beaming on Moon: 5000 km4 • Lunar synchronous: 90,000 km • Dist. b/t Shackleton & Schrodinger: <400 km • Dist. b/t Shackleton & Mons Malapert: ~150 km • Mankins experiment: 148 km Lunar Power Peaks

  15. Energy Storage • Lithium-ion battery (90 kW-hr/kg) • Hydrogen fuel cells • Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC)1 • 412 kW-hr/kg • Expensive • Insufficient TRL Lunar Power Peaks

  16. Power Generation • Habitat: nuclear fission (depending on power requirements) • Nuclear: radiation protection • Nearside observatory at Mons Malapert (light): photovoltaic • Shackleton observatory (helio-observatory) • Farside Infrared observatory in Schrodinger (in dark crater): power beaming to w/backup from fuel cells • Rovers: fuel cells recharged by power beaming • Construction: combustion w/photovoltaic or nuclear from main Lunar Power Peaks

  17. Benefits • If nuclear based then save weight on inefficient solar cells • Provide power to infrared telescope w/o cables • Provide backup power to Shackleton during periods w/o sunlight • Provide backup power to rovers • Provide large scale testing of a power beaming system for future use on Earth or lunar global network • Less power loss than cables • No air to insulate bare wires • Lunar soil has high iron concentration so can’t bury cables • Need to make insulated conduits • Less mass than 300 km + cables Lunar Power Peaks