Mexico and the United States AP US History Some information from Susan M. PojerHorace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Chapter 13 Rise of Democracy-Texas Revolution/Annexation
Texas Revolution • Americans living in Texas • Issues: language, religion, slavery, and taxes • Stephen F. Austin: wants more political freedom • Santa Anna, president of Mexico • Abolishes states constitutions, making himself a dictator • He does not grant Texas the freedom that they are looking for-Stephen F. Austin imprisoned for 1 year • In 1835, Texans vote overwhelmingly against declaring independence, instead hoping that they can rally Mexicans to help them overthrow Santa Anna • Waiting for revolt Texans elect Sam Houston as the leader of the army.
Texas Republic and the Annexation Question • Sam Houston=President of Texas • Texans in favor of annexation 3,277 to 93 • Texas comes up for statehood in 1838 • Denied= issue of slavery • Conspiracy-John C. Calhoun and others believe that British Gov. is conspiring to annex Texas and outlaw slavery in return for British aid • In reality it is British abolitionist making this claim • Houston plays along with the scheme saying that if the U.S. won’t annex Texas that England would
Annexation and Presidential Campaign • In 1844, Tennessean James K. Polk makes annexation the platform for his campaign. • His predecessor, Tyler, then submits the resolution to Congress-narrowly passed • Texas=28th state in 1845 • Wilmot Proviso-wouldprohibit slavery from extending into territory purchased from Mexico-never Passed through the Senate
Chapter 17 Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny First Coined by John L. O’Sullivan Contributes to the myth of the west, giving glory to the west as an adventurous and romantic place
Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War • CAUSES: • Movement of pioneers westward • Two failed attempts by Mexico in 1842 to reclaim Texas • Annexation of Texas in 1845 • After Annexation Mexico throws out the U.S. ambassador and severs diplomatic ties with the U.S.but no declaration of war
Mexican-American War • War looks like it may be avoided when… • Slidell Mission • offers $5mil. for the border to be at the Rio Grande instead of the Nueces Rv. • No Americans live in between these two rivers-only Mexicans • Also offer $5 mil. for New Mexico • Willing to pay almost anything for California • THEN….
Map of Texas Disputed Regions for the Mexican-American War
Mexican-American War • In 1846 Mexican troops cross the Rio Grande and clashed with American troops-Americans surrender after loss of life • Polk then asks Congress to pass a declaration of war, which has already been started “by the act of Mexico herself…notwithstanding all our effort to avoid it.” • Controversy arises…why?
General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto “Old Rough and Ready”
General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”
Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist American Negotiator
Terms of the Treaty Treaty is basically forced upon Mexico Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico(over $3,500,000).
Consequences of the War • The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+American lives (mostly of disease). • New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics. * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX) • These new territories would upset the balance of power between North and South. • Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. • Manifest Destiny partially realized.
War Heroes that Emerge • The Mexican-American War, while controversial, created a number of war heroes that go on to be influential leaders in the Civil War • Ulysses S. Grant • Robert E. Lee • Thomas ‘Stonewall’ Jackson • William Tecumseh Sherman • George McClellan
Aroostook War, 1839 • The only war ever declared by a state. • Between the Canadian region of New Brunswick and the state of Maine. • Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials. • Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for $10,000,000 to pay for the “war.” • General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
The Oregon Dispute-54’ 40◦ of Fight By the mid-1840s,“Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in 1846.