Strategic Organization Putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience.
Organizing your speech 1. The importance to organize speeches clearly and coherently. 2. Five major patterns of organizing main points in a speech. 3. Guidelines for organizing main points. 4. Speech connectives and their roles in a speech.
Clear organization is essential to effective public speaking • 1. Research shows that well-organized speeches are easier for listeners to comprehend. • 2. Research shows that listeners find speakers who give well-organized speeches more competent and trustworthy.
Clear organization is also connected to critical thinking • 1. Organizing speeches helps students understand the relationships between ideas. • 2. The skills of critical thinking used in organizing speeches will benefit students in many aspects of their lives.
The main points • 1. Speeches should have a limited number of main points. • 2. Most speeches contain from two to five main points. • 3. If a speaker discovers that she or he has too many main points, the points should be condensed into a few broad categories.
Main points arrangement • 1. Chronological: main points follow a time sequence (historical events, a process, etc.) • 2. Spatial: main points follow a directional pattern (right to left, east to west) • 3. Causal: main points show a cause-and-effect relationship. • 4. Topical order break the speech topic into its constituent parts. • 5. Problem-solution (for persuasive speech).
Chronological Order A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
Chronological Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience when the Great Wall of China was built. Main Points: I. Building of the Great Wall began during the Qin dynasty of 221-206 B.C. II. New sections of the Great Wall were added during the Han dynasty of 206 B.C.-220 A.D. III. The Great Wall was completed during the Ming Dynasty of 1368-1644.
Spatial Order A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.
Spatial Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the design of the Eiffel Tower. Main Points: I. The lowest section of the tower contains the entrance, a gift shop, and a restaurant. II. The middle section of the tower consists of stairs and elevators that lead to the top. III. The top section of the tower has an observation deck with a spectacular view of Paris.
Topical Order A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
Topical Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the artistic versatility of Pablo Picasso. Main Points: I. As a painter, Picasso tested the limits of abstraction. II. As a sculptor, Picasso often incorporated “found” objects. III. As a printmaker, Picasso gave vent to his whimsy and eroticism.
Problem-Solution Order A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence and seriousness of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
Problem-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that legislation is needed to control the abuses of fraudulent fund-raisers. Main Points: I. Fraudulent charity fund-raising has become a widespread national problem. II. The problem can be solved by a combination of government initiative and individual awareness.
Causal Order A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.
Causal Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the possible causes for the collapse of Mayan civilization. Main Points: I. Mayan civilization flourished for over a thousand years until 900 A.D., when it mysteriously began to disintegrate. (EFFECT) II. Scholars have advanced three major explanations for the causes of this disintegration. (CAUSE)
Tips for preparing main points • 1. Keep your main points separate and distinct: each point should focus on a single idea. • 2. Try to use parallel wording in your main points. It makes main points easier to understand and to stand out from the details of the speech. • 3. Balance the amount of time devoted to each main point.
Four types of connectives • 1. Transitions indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving on to another. • 2. Internal previews let the audience know what the speaker will take up next. • 3. Internal summaries remind listeners of what they have just heard. • 4. Signposts are brief statements that indicate exactly where a speaker is in the speech or that focus attention on key ideas.
Identify the organizational method • I. Cesar Chavez is best known for his efforts to protect the rights of Hispanic farm workers in California. • II. Cesar Chavez was also a tireless advocate for Hispanic racial and cultural pride in general.
Identify the organizational method • I. Rodeos began in the Old West as contests of skill among cowboys during cattle roundups. • II. By 1920 rodeos had become a popular spectator sport for the general public. • III. Today rodeos combine traditional western events with a circus-like atmosphere and the marketing techniques of big business.
Identify the organizational method • I. The outermost section of the ancient Egyptian burial tomb was the entrance passage. • II. The next section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the antechamber. • III. The third section of the Egyptian burial tomb was the treasury.
Introductions and conclusions • Objectives of a speech introduction • A. To gain the attention and interest of the audience. • B. To reveal the topic of the speech. • C. To establish the credibility and good will of the speaker. • D. To preview the body of the speech.
Methods of gaining attention • 1. Relate the topic to the audience • 2. State the importance of the topic. • 3. Startle the audience. • 4. Arouse the curiosity of the audience. • 5. Question the audience. • 6. Begin with a quotation. • 7. Tell a story, an anecdote, a joke. • 8. Refer to the occasion or to a previous speaker.
Preparing an effective introduction • A. Make the introduction brief and to the point. • B. Keep an eye out for potential introductory material as you research the speech. • C. Be creative when devising their introductions. • D. Don’t be concerned with the exact wording of the introduction until the body of the speech is finished. • E. Prepare it in detail so it can be delivered effectively.
A speech conclusion has two primary functions • A. The first function is to signal the end of the speech. • B. The second function of a conclusion is to reinforce the audience’s understanding of or commitment to the central idea of the speech.
Methods of ending the speech • a. Summarize the main points of the speech. • b. Conclude with a quotation. • c. End with a dramatic statement. • d. Refer back to the introduction of the speech. • These methods can be used separately or in combination to create an effective conclusion.
Preparing an effective conclusion • A. Keep an eye out for potential concluding materials as you research the speech. • B. Conclude with a bang instead of a whimper. • C. Be brief. • D. Prepare the content and delivery of your conclusions with special care.