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BIOL 102 PowerPoint Presentation

BIOL 102

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BIOL 102

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  1. BIOL 102

  2. Example Question Which of the following statements is TRUE? • Atomic mass is the same as weight • In polar covalent bonds, electrons are shared equally between the two atoms • In a reduction reaction, the molecule becomes more negative • A pH of 5 is 50 times greater than a pH of 4 • Hydrophillic molecules do not dissolve in water

  3. Example Question Polysaccharides are: • A hydrophobic functional group • Small, simple sugars • Composed of only two monosaccharides • Composed of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol • Composed of 3 or more monosaccharides

  4. Example Question A heterotrophic trimeric enzyme is: • Composed of α-helices and β-pleated sheets • A string of amino acids • An enzyme complex composed of 3 different subunits • An enzyme complex composed of 3 of the same subunits • The tertiary structure of an enzyme

  5. Example Question Which of the following is correct: • Purines are double ringed • DNA is read from 3´ to 5´ • Thymine is methylateduracil • A and B are correct • A and C are correct

  6. Example Question Which of the following structures in bacteria provides locomotion? • Flagella • Pilli • Ribosomes • Glycocalyx • DNA

  7. Example Question The cytoskeleton is composed of: • Microtubules • Intermediate filaments • Actin filaments • All of the above

  8. Example Question Which of the following is TRUE: • The ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope • The Golgi apparatus is continuous with the nuclear envelope • Nuclear pores allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus • A and C are true

  9. Example Question Peroxisomes are remain a controversial member of the endomembranous system because: • Their origin is the ER • They catalyze many oxidation reactions • They function in protein transport • They undergo binary fission

  10. Example Question Which statement(s) describe semiautonomous organelles. • Reproduce via binary fission • Have circular DNA • Can produce some of their necessary proteins • All of the above

  11. Example Question V-snare/t-snare interactions are important for: • Guiding ribosomes to channel proteins in the ER • Cleaving proteins in the ER lumen • Guiding vesicles containing proteins from the ER to the Golgi • All of the above

  12. Example Question Which of the following is incorrect: • Glycosylation plays a role in protein folding • All proteins for mitochondria and chloroplasts are post-translationally sorted • Hydrophobic transmembrane regions anchor transmembrane proteins • Chaperones keep proteins unfolded

  13. Example Question: Proteasomes are: • The same as proteomes • Used in Palade’s pulse-chase experiment • Sites for protein degradation • Polyubiquinilated proteomes

  14. Example Question What is/are the function(s) of biological membranes? • Compartmentalization • Regulation of transport • Communication/signal transduction • All of the above

  15. Example Question A highly permeable molecule would be: • Charged • Small • Non-polar • A and B • B and C

  16. Example Question An isotonic solution... • Causes cells to shrink • Causes cells to swell • Is caused by unequal concentration gradients • None of the above

  17. Example Question Which of the following is a type of channel protein? • Symporter • Voltage-gated • Antiporter • A and C • None of the above

  18. Example Question Active transport... • Directly uses energy to transport a solute • Uses a pre-existing gradient to transfer a solute • Does not need energy to transfer a solute • A and B • None of the above

  19. Example Question The Law of Conservation of Energy states: • Transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy • Energy can be destroyed but not created • Energy can be created but not destroyed • Energy cannot be created or destroyed

  20. Example Question Using the above equation for Keq and the following concentrations ([ADP] = 10 mmol, the [Pi] = 2 mmol, and [ATP] = 10 mmol) if the reaction occurs at 25 oC then is it: • Exergonic • Endergonic • Hypergonic • Hypogonic

  21. Example Question Enzymes lower activation energy by • Straining bonds in reactants to make it easier to achieve transition state • Positioning reactants together to facilitate bonding • Changing local environment of reactants • All of the above

  22. Example Question Competitive inhibition... • Inhibitor competes with substrate for the active site • Inhibitor competes with substrate for the allosteric site • Does not affect Vmax, only Km • A and C • None of the above

  23. Example question Which of the four stages of aerobic respiration occurs in the cytosol? • Glycolysis • Formation of acetyl CoA • Citric acid cycle • Electron transport and chemiosmosis

  24. Which of the following is FALSE? • Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration • ATP synthase harnesses the proton motive force to create ATP • Secondary metabolites are essential for growth • By attaching florescent actin to ATP synthase, Yoshida and Kinosita showed that ATP synthase spins

  25. Example Question The light reaction occurs in the... • Chloroplasts • Stroma • Grana • Thylakoid membrane

  26. Example Question Based on the absorption spectra, which colour of light would boost the most electrons in chlorophyll b to higher levels? • Red • Yellow • Green • Blue • Violet

  27. Example Question The electrons that travel through the photosystems originate from... • Pyruvate • NADH • ATP • Water

  28. Example Question Converting 3PG into G3P uses... • CO2, ATP, and NADH • Water, ATP, and NADH • CO2, Water, and ATP • NADH, Pyruvate, and Water

  29. Example Question Which of the following is not a hypothesis for the existence of photorespiration • Artefact of evolution • Safety valve • Nitrogen assimilation • Feed 3PG back into Calvin cycle

  30. Example Question Why does photorespiration occur less in C4 plants? • Rubisco has a high affinity for CO2 • PEP carboxylase has a low affinity for O2 • CO2 is “delivered” to rubisco • B and C

  31. Example Question CAM plants differ from C4 plants because... • They use temporal segregation • They use spatial segregation • They store malate • A and C

  32. Example Question Autocrine signalling differs from paracrine signalling because... • Cells secrete molecules that stimulate other nearby cells • Cells secrete molecules that stimulate other nearby cells and itself • Cells secrete molecules that travel long distances • Cells need to be in contact for the signal to be tranduced

  33. Example Question cAMP pathway is turned off by... • G-protein reassembly • PKA reassembly • Phosphodiesterase • Phosphatase • All of the above

  34. Example question Why can the same signal have different effects in different cells? • Different proteome • Different receptors • Different signal pathway • All of the above

  35. Example Question Which of the following is not a feature of apoptosis? • Blebbing • Cell shrinkage • Cell splitting • Round shape

  36. Example Question Which of the following is FALSE? • Hersey and Chase discovered that DNA was the genetic material • Griffith discovered that there must have been some sort of transforming principle • Franklin and Wilkins discovered that DNA was a double helix • Chargaff discovered the ratios of nucleotides

  37. Example Question Meselsohn and Stahl found that DNA replication via a __________ mechanism • Semiconservative • Conservative • Dispersive • Compressive

  38. Example Question Which of the following are not involved in DNA replication? • DNA Polymerase III • DNA Polymerase II • DNA Polymerase I • DNA Helicase

  39. Example Question Telomerases... • Are stretches of repeated DNA at the end of chromosomes • Do not code for anything • Prevent shortening of chromosomes • All of the above • None of the above

  40. Example Question The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis states that: • Single genes encode single enzymes • Single genes encode multiple enzymes • Single genes are one enzyme • Single genes are multiple enzymes

  41. Example Question How many possible codons are there? • 4 • 42 • 43 • 44

  42. Example Question RNA Polymerase reads the ________ strand in a 5’to 3’ direction until it reaches the ________ sequence. • Coding, promotor • Coding, termination • Template, promotor • Template, termination

  43. Example Question _______ are regions of mRNA that do not code for protein and are cut out by ________. • Introns, spliceosomes • Introns, RNA ligase • Exons, spliceosomes • Exons, RNA ligase

  44. Example Question Bill Murray is lost studying translation. Help Bill by telling him which of the following is true. • Anticodons are not complementary to codons • PeptidyltRNA is found in the E site • Eukaryotes use ribosomal binding sequences • Formation of aminoacyltRNA is the first step of translation

  45. Example Question In the lacoperon, negative regulation is controlled by ________. It causes the repressor to ________ to/from the operator. • cAMP, bind • cAMP, dissociate • Allolactose, bind • Allolactose, dissociate

  46. Example Question TATA boxes function to: • Enhance transcription • Guide RNA polymerase to start site • All of the above • None of the above

  47. Example Question What is not a part of the preinitiation complex? • GTFs • RNA Polymerase II • Mediators • None of the above

  48. Example Question When DNA is in a closed conformation... • RNA polymerase cannot access it • It can be accessed by histoneacetyltransferase • It is closed off from the cell forever • A and B

  49. Example Question DNA methylation inhibits transcription because... • It degrades DNA • Prevents binding of activators to upstream promotor elements • Packaging chromatin in a closed conformation • B and C

  50. Example Question Homeotic genes affect _______ and control _______ of the organism. • Transcription, development • Transcription, reproduction • Translation, development • Translation, reproduction