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Chapter 14 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

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  1. Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves

  2. The cranial nerves CN I CN II CN III CN IV CN V CN VI CN VII CN VIII CN IX CN X CN XI CN XII Olfactory Optic Occulomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducens Facial Accoustic Glossopharyngeal Vagus Spinal Accessory Hypoglossal On Old Olympian Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hopps

  3. A Quick brain overview

  4. cerebrum • cerebral hemispheres • neural cortex (gray matter) • gyri - ridges • sulci - depressions • fissures fig. 14-1

  5. Brain landmarks cerebrum • conscious thoughts • sensations • intellect • memory • complex movements

  6. cerebellar hemispheres • coordinates complex • muscle actions cerebellum fig. 14-1

  7. thalamus • relay, process sensory info • hypothalamus • emotions, autonomics, hormones pituitary gland midbrain - process visual hearing info pons fiber tract medulla oblongata autonomics, etc. fig. 14-1

  8. embryology brain: • tube • wall • cavity

  9. embryology five brain vesicles: telencephalon diencephalon mesencephalon metencephalon myelencephalon cerebrum thalamus mid- cerebellum/pons medulla ob.

  10. embryology five brain vesicles: • all hollow • fluid-filled spaces • ventricles • with CSF • (cerebrospinal fluid)

  11. brain ventricles: telencephalon diencephalon mesencephalon metencephalon myelencephalon lateral v third v cerebralaqueduct fourth v fourth v

  12. lateral lateral lateral lateral third third fourth fourth cerebral aqueduct fig. 14-2

  13. ventricles (and central canal of the spinal cord) are all connected to each other all filled with CSF

  14. brain is surrounded by: 1. bones of cranium 2. meninges dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater 3. CSF inside and around outside

  15. CSF cushion brain/spinal cord supports brain transport nutrients/wastes produced by lining of cavities circultates in and around brain

  16. blood supply to brain neural tissue does not have reserves of glucose, O2 etc., has a very good blood supply internal carotid arteries vertebral arteries

  17. blood supply to brain CVA (stroke) • blood supply to part of the brain is cut off • tissue begins to die • infarction

  18. blood supply to brain blood-brain barrier • restrict access to neural tissue • of most molecules • capillary endothelial cells • tight junctions • astrocyte foot processes

  19. astrocytes fig. 12-4

  20. A&P Jeopardy What is a nucleus ? The cellular organelle containing the DNA What is a nucleus ? A collection of NCB in the CNS (nerve cell bodies) What is a ganglion ? A collection of NCB in the PNS

  21. review cranial nerves name and number brain 5 vesicles and fates CSF in and around CNS good blood supply to brain blood / brain barrier nucleus vs. ganglion

  22. The Brain medulla oblongata autonomic reflexes cranial nerve nuclei relay stations

  23. brain spinal cord medulla oblongata all info passes through

  24. medulla oblongata autonomic reflexes heart rate heart contraction strength peripheral blood flow respiration rate

  25. medulla oblongata motor nuclei for cranial nerves: CN IX, X, XI, XII muscles of pharynx, neck, back viscera

  26. medulla oblongata sensory nuclei for cranial nerves: CN VIII from inner ear

  27. medulla oblongata relay stations: nucleus gracilis nucleus cuneatus somatic sensory visceral sensory solitary nucleus somatic motor olivary nucleus

  28. pons links cerebellum with… …everything else lots of tracts passing through

  29. vestibular cochlear nuclei pons cranial nerve nuclei motor: CN V, VI, VII jaw and some face muscles sensory: CN VIII

  30. cerebellum adjust postural muscles of body fine-tune motor movements

  31. fig. 14-7

  32. Purkinje cells in cortex each one can receive input from up to 200,000 synapses proprioception visual tactile balance auditory input from:

  33. fig. 14-7

  34. ataxia (lack of order) a disturbance in muscular coordination physical damage stroke drugs (EtOH)

  35. mesencephalon corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi inferior colliculi

  36. mesencephalon relay for corpora quadrigemina visual superior colliculi reflex center for eyes, head, neck response to bright light

  37. mesencephalon relay for corpora quadrigemina superior colliculi inferior colliculi visual auditory reflex center for head, neck, trunk response to loud noise

  38. mesencephalon tegmentum red nucleus substantianigra control arm position and background muscle tone regulates basal nuclei

  39. mesencephalon headquarters of RAS

  40. diencephalon • epithalamus • pineal gland melatonin d/n • thalamus • relay info to basal nuclei • and cerebrum • hypothalamus • control and integration • hormones, emotions

  41. diencephalon • thalamus • R & L separated by third v. • 5 groups of nuclei • anterior • medial • ventral • posterior • lateral

  42. diencephalon • thalamus • anterior part of limbic system (later, emotions/motivation)

  43. diencephalon • thalamus • medial connect emotional centers of hypothalamus with frontal lobes of cerebrum

  44. diencephalon • thalamus • ventral info from basal nuclei to motor areas of cerebrum relay senses to cerebrum

  45. diencephalon • thalamus • posterior • integrate, relay sensory information to cerebrum • LGN visual • MGN auditory

  46. diencephalon • thalamus • lateral feeback loops with limbic s emotions integration of senses

  47. fig. 14-9

  48. diencephalon hypothalamus below thalamus optic chiasm mamillary bodies infundibulum

  49. fig. 14-10

  50. diencephalon hypothalamus subconscious control of skeletal muscle (facial expression with emotions)