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Expressing Opinion

Expressing Opinion

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Expressing Opinion

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  1. Expressing Opinion A matter of perspective! What’s your POV? Discuss each statement in a small group of 3. Make sure you have reasons to support your POV. • Students should be able to choose what they wear to school • Teenagers should be permitted to purchase or buy whatever they want to with their own money. • Young people should be required to do chores around the house • Boys make better leaders than girls • All teenagers need their own bedroom • Tattoos and body-piercings are personal choice and should be permitted at school or in the workplace • Skateboards should be allowed on sidewalks • Teachers give too much homework

  2. So, why debate? Learning Goals: • Meaningful practice of all MACRO skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing • Focused practice with speaking skills: pronunciation, intonation and expression • Develop reasoned argument skills for persuasive speech and essay writing • Practice critical thinking skills

  3. HOW? • Practice expressing opinion about controversial topics: known as resolutions • Identify the difference between fact and opinion • Identify the features of a good debate • Identify and judge the strength or weakness of supportingreasons • Research the Pros and Cons of resolutions • Practice delivering formal arguments from both the affirmative and negative sides of the debate • Practice responding to presented arguments with rebuttals • Practice introducing and summarizing main ideas presented during the debate

  4. Assessment • You will be assessed on your speaking skills (pronunciation, intonation and expression) • Research & Note-taking • Strength of your arguments • Reflections on your learning

  5. Aristotle, Greek philosopher(384-322 BCE) "It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.” How does this quote relate to DEBATE?

  6. Opinions, Resolutions and Reasons Match & complete the following statements: • A resolution.. • A controversial topic.. • In DEBATE, participants either agree or disagree with the resolution… • Finding strong, valid reasons to support or oppose a resolution… • Valid reasons… • …regardless of what they personally believe. • ..is an opinion about a controversial topic. • …is the main task for debaters. • …are those which are supported by evidence. • ..is one in which there can be valid disagreement. Yes, write them down!

  7. Opinions, Resolutions and Reasons • A resolution is an opinion about a controversial topic. • A controversial topic is one in which there can be valid disagreement. • In DEBATE, participants either agree or disagree with the resolution regardless of what they personally believe. • Finding strong, validreasons to support or oppose a resolution is the main task for debaters. • Valid reasons are those which are supported by evidence.

  8. Strong Versus Weak Reasons • The Resolution: “I strongly believe that smoking should be banned in all public places” • According to experts, a strong, valid reason has the following qualities: • It logically supports the opinion (eg. cause & effect) • it is specific, rather than general, and states the idea clearly • it is convincing to the majority of people TASK: Identify & practice writing strong reasons (Worksheet p1)

  9. Types of Evidence The Resolution: “I strongly believe that smoking should be banned in all public places” • Personal Experience: from your own experience or documented accounts of others • Common Knowledge: what everyone knows to be true • Expert Opinion: what the experts say; can be individuals or organizations • Statistics: numbers from surveys, studies & research TASK: Identify strong vs weak evidence (Worksheet p2)

  10. Answer Key Resolutions, Reasons & Evidence • The Resolution: “I strongly believe that smoking should be banned in all public places…” TYPES OF SUPPORTING EVIDENCE: • Personal Experience: In my experience… /For instance.. /Let me give an example… Whenever I go to a restaurant or bar and there are people smoking near me, I feel that I am breathing their smoke. This makes me a smoker even though I don't want to be. • Common Knowledge: Everyone knows that.. / It's widely known that../It's common knowledge that.. Secondhand smoke is very unhealthy for nonsmokers. • Statistics: It’s reported that.. / Statistics show that.. / According to statistics… Secondhand smoke causes about 250,000 respiratory infections in infants and children every year, resulting in about 15,000 hospitalizations each year. • Expert Opinion: According to.../ As … explains… / To quote... According to the Environmental Protection Agency, "secondhand smoke causes approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths in nonsmokers each year." • The Strongest & Most Valid Reason: “…since exposure to second-hand smoke is harmful to health.”

  11. Your turn… 2 teams of 6! • The Resolution: Choose a resolution you’d like to debate SUPPORTING EVIDENCE: Each team member must find some evidence to support their reason: • Personal Experience: In my experience… /For instance.. /Let me give an example… • Common Knowledge: Everyone knows that.. / It's widely known that../It's common knowledge that.. • Statistics: It’s reported that.. / Statistics show that.. / According to statistics… • Expert Opinion: According to.../ As … explains… / To quote... Decide the Affirmative & Negative teams • The StrongestReason: Each team member should identify ONE strong and valid reason to support or oppose the resolution

  12. What Reasons will best Support your Argument? • A good argument can have one Strong Valid Reason, like a solid pedestal, that holds up the whole table top. • An argument can also have several solid reasons, each of which may not be strong enough by itself, but when used together, can create a solid support. • But, when the argument has only one or two weak reasons, the table top will most certainly fall.

  13. DEBATE PROCEDURE • Announcement of topic • Assignment of debaters to affirmative and negative teams • Teams choose a Captain, Decide Speaker order and discuss Strategy (reasons & evidence) • Team Research & Planning • Affirmative Team lead the DEBATE alternating with Negative TEAM speakers to present reasons and evidence as well as any rebuttal (max. 3 mins per person) • Vote by audience and announcement of winning team Debate Organizer to be Completed and Submitted to Ms Amy

  14. Language of DEBATE • A position on a resolution can be introduced by an opinion transition: • In my opinion... /I think that.. /We strongly believe that…/I'm convinced that.../I honestly feel that../It is clear that … / It is fairly certain that... • A reason can be introduced by a reason transition: • ...because/…since / To start with…/ The reason why.../For this reason.../Considering that.../Allowing for the fact that.../ Given the fact that… • Evidence can be introduced with a range of transitions depending on the TYPE of Evidence being used: • In my experience… /For instance.. /Let me give an example… /Everyone knows that.. / if...then / It's common knowledge that.. • A rebuttal can be expressed with disagreement transition: • I’m afraid I don't agree with the argument presented by.. /Frankly, I doubt if.../ Let's face it, the truth of the matter is.../The problem with your point of view is that.../Contrary to what the___team says.. /Actually the evidence indicates otherwise..