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Requirements - Expressing

Requirements - Expressing

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Requirements - Expressing

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  1. Requirements - Expressing Requirements analysis & its outcomes

  2. But FIRST…Project brainstorming • Pair or triple up… • Brainstorm ideas/problems/applications with digital photo display and sharing • Choose a couple and elaborate • Pause to share ideas with everyone… • After class – try and form project groups

  3. Assignment 2 • Many general questions • Good to get started, but you want more details • Keep following up on the interesting answers • Try and understand what the user really wants to accomplish • Don’t just ask what feature they want – they may not really know • Don’t worry too much about marketing/business aspects when gathering data

  4. Recall: Data Gathering Methods 1. Ethnography - learn by immersion/doing 2. Observation - thinking out loud 3. Cooperative Evaluation 4. Interviews 5. Questionnaires 6. Focus groups 7. Study Documentation 8. Look at competitive products

  5. Which Methods to Use? • Self-service filling and payment system for a gas station • On-board ship data analysis system for geologists searching for oil • Fashion website for buying clothes at large department store

  6. Stakeholders • Primary – targeted end users • Secondary – receive output or provide input to system • Tertiary – others directly receiving benefits from system success or failure • Facilitating – design, development, maintenance

  7. Stakeholder analysis • Cell phone • Fashion web site • Nuclear power plant control system

  8. User Characteristics • Attitude, morale, willingness to change, motivation, reading level, typing skill, education, frequency of use, training, color-blindness, handedness, gender,… • Novice, intermediate, expert • System experience, task experience, computer literacy • Cultural factors • Uses of icons, colors, words, metaphors - more later

  9. User Low motivation, discretionary use Low motivation, mandatory use High motivation, due to fear High motivation, due to interest Design goal Ease of learning Control, power Ease of learning, robustness, control Power, ease of use User Motivation

  10. Experience Task System low low high high low high high low Design goals Many syntactic and semantic prompts Efficient commands, concise syntax Semantic help facilities Lots of syntactic prompting Implications of Experience

  11. Job & Task Implications • Frequency of use • High - Ease of use • Low - Ease of learning & remembering • Task implications • High - Ease of use • Low - Ease of learning • System use • Mandatory - Ease of use • Discretionary - Ease of learning

  12. Job Characteristics • Mission critical • Life and safety • High stress environment • High mental workload • Low mental workload • Implications of these types of jobs?

  13. Physical Environment • Lighting levels / directions • Noise level • Temperature • Standing / sitting • Implications of these types of environments?

  14. Technical Environment • Computers/platforms for application • Technology to interact with • Networking • Mobility What are implications?

  15. Social Environment • How do users interact? Roles? • How do users interact with others? • Social implications of problem or solution? • Interruption • Privacy What are implications?

  16. Results of Requirments Gathering & Analysis • Real-world constraints • User characteristics + Personas • Usability Requirements • Task - subtask decomposition • Includes sequencing information • Use Cases & Scenarios • Possibly workflow diagrams, flow charts • ER Model – Objects diagram

  17. Scenario • Describe tasks and context in sentences • Natural way of describing general idea • Not effective for • details • branching tasks • parallel tasks • GREAT as introduction to diagrams or outlines

  18. Scenario: Example 1 • Its Friday afternoon and John just got paid. He wants to deposit his check immediately so he can pay his rent. He stops at one branch of his bank on the way home from work. He waits in his car while another person finishes using the ATM in front of the bank since it is drizzling outside. He walks up to the ATM to deposit his check. Only, as he is about to put the check into the envelope at the ATM, he realizes that he has not signed the back of it, and he has no pen and can not find one on or near the ATM machine. He cancels the transaction on the ATM, and enters the bank, which luckily is still open for 5 more minutes. He goes to the counter, finds a pen, and signs his check. He also fills out a deposit slip. He then waits to see a teller in person to deposit his check, and get money for the weekend.

  19. Scenario: Example 2 • Annie walks up to the ATM to deposit her weekly pay check. She puts her ATM card into the slot in the machine. She then enters her PIN number quickly, trying to block the person waiting behind her from viewing the keypad, and knows that she does not have to press “Enter” at this particular machine. She then chooses “Deposit” and “Check.” She enters the amount of the check using the keypad, then takes an envelope from the ATM machine, puts her check inside, seals the envelope and writes the amount of the check on the outside. She feeds the envelope into the slot into the ATM machine. She then selects “No other transactions” to finish, and waits to receive her receipt and ATM card.

  20. Persona • Description of user and what user wishes to do • Be specific/detailed, even give names and picture • Three personas for ATM usage follow • Adapted from User Interface Design and Evaluation, The Open University • Developed by Cooper (1999)

  21. Felix (representing teenage ATM users) Felix is 13 and gets pocket money each week. He spends it with his friends, so doesn’t make regular deposits. He does receive gifts for his birthday, Christmas, etc. and saves that money for special purchases, such as a computer games console or trendy clothes. He has an ATM card allowing him to make withdrawals when needed for his purchases.

  22. Sandra (representing young adults thru middle age) Sandra is 30, is married to Jason, has two children Todd(6) and Carly (18 months). They live in a subdivision that is about three miles from the town center, where the bank and stores are located. Jason uses the car for work, and works long hours, leaving at 6:45 am and returning at 8:00 pm. Sandra does not drive, so has to use public transportation. She tries to run errands and shop while Todd is in school, so she only has to take Carly to town with her. She typically needs to make two trips to town each week to get everything done. She uses a stroller with Carly, and the bank is one flight up via escalator, so she prefers to use the ATM outside the first floor, even though there is no canopy to protect customers from bad weather.

  23. Grandpa Marvin (representing middle age to senior citizens) Marvin is 68 years old, and his social security is deposited into his bank account at the start of each month. He goes to the bank every week, withdrawing enough cash for the week - for miscellaneous expenditures. Regular bills are paid by check. He stands in line for a live teller, as he prefers the social interaction to using an ATM, even though his new artificial hip makes standing in line uncomfortable. He does not have an ATM card.