World Food Pyramid Facts How can we effect the world and the world around us?
Define Hunger…. • Hunger is a term which has three meanings (Oxford English Dictionary 1971) the uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food the want or scarcity of food in a country, a strong desire or craving • World hunger refers to the second definition, aggregated to the world level. The related technical term (in this case operationalized in medicine) is malnutrition.1 • Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia).
Malnutrition…. 3 Types of malnutrition: #1: Lack of enough protein (from meat and other sources) and food that provides energy (measured in calories) which all of the basic food groups provide. This is the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed. #2: Micronutrient (Vitamin & Mineral Deficiency) This is not the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainly very important. #3: Obseity: It is poor nutrition, but it is certainly not typically due to a lack of calories, but rather too many (although poor food choices, often due to poverty, are part of the problem). Obesity will not be considered here, although obesity is certainly a health problem and is increasingly considered as a type of malnutrition.]
The World Health Organization (WHO) • produces global estimates of vitamin and mineral deficiencies to identify high-priority areas to target and implement micronutrient interventions • advocates for resource allocation • assess the influence of vitamin and mineral deficiencies as risk factors to the overall global burden of disease
WHO Vitamin & Mineral Nutrition Information System (VMNIS) • currently collates information at the national, regional, state or local level on anaemia, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies of populations. • Based on this information, the Micronutrients Unit has published global estimates of the prevalence of anaemia (1993-2005), vitamin A deficiency (1995-2005), and iodine deficiency (1993-2003 and 2004-2007). • The collated data, along with data from other WHO databases, has also been used by the WHO Mortality Burden of Disease study to assess the comparative importance of iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in causing premature death, loss of health and disability in different populations.
Micronutrients • Quite a few trace elements or micronutrients--vitamins and minerals--are important for health. • 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected by vitamin and mineral deficiencies, according to the World Health Organization. • Three, perhaps the most important in terms of health consequences for poor people in developing countries, are:
Most Important Micronutrients • Vitamin A Vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness and reduces the body's resistance to disease. In children Vitamin A deficiency can also cause growth retardation. Between 100 and 140 million children are vitamin A deficient. An estimated 250,000 to 500 000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. (World Health Organization) • IronIron deficiency is a principal cause of anemia. Two billion people—over 30 percent of the world’s population—are anemic, mainly due to iron deficiency, and, in developing countries, frequently exacerbated by malaria and worm infections. For children, health consequences include premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and elevated risk of death. Later, physical and cognitive development are impaired, resulting in lowered school performance. For pregnant women, anemia contributes to 20 percent of all maternal deaths (World Health Organization). • IodineIodine deficiency disorders (IDD) jeopardize children’s mental health– often their very lives. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in stillbirths, abortions and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. IDD also causes mental impairment that lowers intellectual prowess at home, at school, and at work. IDD affects over 740 million people, 13 percent of the world’s population. Fifty million people have some degree of mental impairment caused by IDD (World Health Organization). • (Updated March 6, 2011)
Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. • The causes of poverty include poor people's lack of resources, an extremely unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hunger itself. As of 2008 (2005 statistics), the World Bank has estimated that there were an estimated 1,345 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1.25 a day or less. • This compares to the later FAO estimate of 1.02 billion undernourished people. Extreme poverty remains an alarming problem in the world’s developing regions, despite some progress that reduced "dollar--now $1.25-- a day" poverty from (an estimated) 1900 million people in 1981, a reduction of 29 percent over the period. • Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased.
US: Lets Move!Michelle Obama Campaign • The Issue Over the past three decades, childhood obesity rates in America have tripled. Today, almost one in every three children in our nation is overweight or obese. • The numbers are even higher in African American and Hispanic communities where nearly 40% of the children are overweight or obese. Rates are estimated to be even higher in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. • If we don’t solve this problem, 1/3of all children born in 2000 or later will suffer from diabetes at some point in their lives. Many others will face chronic obesity-related health problems like heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer and asthma. • http://www.letsmove.gov/sites/letsmove.gov/files/Let%27s_Move_Fact_Sheet.pdf • www.Letsmove.gov
Chefs Move to Schools • The Chefs Move to Schools program is an important component of First Lady Michelle Obama’sLet’s Move! initiative, which helps chefs partner with interested schools in their communities so together they can create healthy meals that meet the schools’ dietary guidelines and budgets, while teaching young people about nutrition and making balanced and healthy choices. • http://www.letsmove.gov/chefs-move-schools
Nutrient Information • Fruits and vegetables are sources of many vitamins, minerals and other natural substances that may help protect you from chronic diseases. Some of these nutrients may also be found in other foods. Eating a balanced diet and making other lifestyle changes are key to maintaining your body's good health.
FIBER • Fiber Diets rich in dietary fiber have been shown to have a number of beneficial effects including decreased risk of coronary artery disease. • Excellent vegetable sources: navy beans, kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, lima beans, white beans, soybeans, split peas, chick peas, black eyed peas, lentils, artichokes
FOLATE • Healthful diets with adequate folate may reduce a woman's risk of having a child with a brain or spinal cord defect. • Excellent vegetable sources: black eyed peas, cooked spinach, great northern beans, asparagus
POTASSIUM • Potassium Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain a healthy blood pressure. • Good fruit and vegetable sources: sweet potatoes, tomato paste, tomato puree, beet greens, white potatoes, white beans, lima beans, cooked greens, carrot juice, prune juice
VITAMIN A • Vitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections. • Excellent fruit and vegetable sources: sweet potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, spinach, turnip greens, mustard greens, kale, collard greens, winter squash, cantaloupe, red peppers, Chinese cabbage
VITAMIN C • Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keep teeth and gums healthy. • Excellent fruit and vegetable sources: red and green peppers, kiwi, strawberries, sweet potatoes, kale, cantaloupe, broccoli, pineapple, Brussels sprouts, oranges, mangoes, tomato juice, cauliflower
VITAMIN SOURCE AMOUNTS • Good sources: These foods contain 10 to 19 percent of the Daily Value per reference amount.Excellent sources: These foods contain 20% or more of the Daily Value per reference amount.*The Institute of Medicine recommends that women of childbearing age who may become pregnant consume 400 micrograms of synthetic folic acid per day to supplement the folate they receive from a varied diet. Synthetic folic acid can be obtained from eating fortified foods or taking a supplement. • http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov/benefits/nutrient_guide.html
How you can help world hunger • http://www.worldhunger.org/reduce.htm • Use more food groups in your cooking and creative thought process.