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Cells or Cells or Cells?

Cells or Cells or Cells?

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Cells or Cells or Cells?

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  1. Cells or Cells or Cells? • Do not copy notes that are in black. • Only copy notes that are in color.

  2. MODERN CELL THEORY The cell is the unit of structure and function in living things. All cells arise from preexisting cells. The cells of all living things carry on similar metabolic activities.

  3. Levels of Organization for Multicellular Organism: Cells  Tissue  Organs  Organ Systems  Organism (Simple ) (Most Complex) Example: Muscle cell  Muscle Tissue  Muscle  Muscular System Human

  4. The cell is the Basic Unit of Life • Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms • Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only • The cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to perform different functions

  5. Tissue • A group of similar cells to perform a particular function • Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue • Plants : vascular tissue, mesophyll

  6. Organ • Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions • Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels • Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue

  7. The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell Spongy Mesophyll Cell Air Space Stoma

  8. The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ)

  9. Organ System • Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way • Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems • Plant : root and shoot systems

  10. Human Body Systems Examples of systems : • Digestive System • Respiratory System • Circulatory System • Nervous System • Reproductive System

  11. Examples of a Human Body System

  12. Examples of a Human Body System

  13. Examples of a Human Body System Circulatory System

  14. Examples of a Human Body System Nervous System

  15. Levels of Organization • CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells) • TISSUES (muscle, epithelium) • ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach) • SYSTEMS (circulatory system) • ORGANISM (human)

  16. They all turn in to YOU ! ! !

  17. Basic Structure of a Cell Cell Video

  18. Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Cells can only be observed under microscope Basic types of cells: Bacterial Cell Animal Cell Plant Cell

  19. Number of Cells • Organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many cells that are organized

  20. Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic • Prokaryotes include bacteria & lack a nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles • Eukaryotesinclude most other cells & have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (plants, fungi, & animals)

  21. Prokaryotes • Nucleoid region contains the DNA • Has a Cell membrane & cell wall • Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm

  22. Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles Eukaryotic Cell

  23. Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Animal Cell Plant Cell

  24. Organelles Very small size Can only be observed under a microscope Have specific functions Found throughout cytoplasm

  25. Gotham City I mean Cell City

  26. Organelles Found in Cells Examples of Organelles include: Endoplasmic reticulum (rough & smooth) – canals for movement Golgi Bodies – wrap & export proteins Nucleolus – makes ribosomes Lysosomes – digests & gets rid of wastes Ribosomes – makes proteins

  27. Cell membrane Surrounding the Cell is the • Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells • Made of protein and phospholipids • Selectively permeable

  28. Cytoplasm Cytoplasm of a Cell • Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane • Provides a way for chemical reactions to take place

  29. Nucleus • Controls the normal activities of the cell • Contains the DNA and chromosomes • Enclosed by a nuclear membrane

  30. Nucleolus • Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli • Inside nucleus • Disappears when cell divides • Makes ribosomes that make proteins

  31. Ribosomes • sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm • may be free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

  32. Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER does not have ribosomes Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT

  33. Golgi Bodies • Stacks of flattened sacs • Have a shipping side & a receiving side • Receive & modify proteins made by ER • Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends Transport vesicle

  34. Mitochondria The Cell Powerhouse is the • Rod shape • Site of Cellular respiration Animation

  35. In Animal Cells: Mitochondria • Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria • Burn sugars to produce energy ATP

  36. Lysosome • Contain digestive enzymes • Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells • Programmed for cell death (releases an enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts) • Lysosome animation

  37. Plant Cell Organelles

  38. Chloroplast • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll • Traps sunlight to make to make sugars (food) • Process is called photosynthesis

  39. Plant Cell Cell wall • Dead layer • Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers • Freely permeable

  40. Plant Cell Cell wall (only in plants) • Nonliving layer • Gives structure and shape to plant and bacterial cells

  41. Cell wall Plant Cell Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibers Strong and rigid Found in plant cells

  42. Plant Cell Cell wall • Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) • Resist entry of excess water into the cell • Give shape to the cell

  43. Vacuole Plant Cell Organelles • Have a large central vacuole • Containss sap, sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments

  44. white blood cell Amoeba red blood cell muscle cell sperm cheek cells nerve cell Paramecium Different kinds of animal cells

  45. Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria

  46. Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Smaller in size Larger in size Irregular shape Regular shape No cell wall Cell wall

  47. Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells Animal cells Plant cells Vacuole small or absent Large central vacuole Glycogen as food storage Starch as food storage Nucleus at the center Nucleus near cell wall