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Energy From Fossil Fuels

Energy From Fossil Fuels

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Energy From Fossil Fuels

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Energy From Fossil Fuels

  2. 1. Energy sources and uses

  3. History of energy sources

  4. Global primary energy supply

  5. Energy consumption in the United States

  6. Types of energy sources • Primary: • Oil • Natural gas • Coal • Nuclear power • Water power • Wood and other • Secondary • Electric power

  7. Electrical power production • Generators

  8. Electrical power production • Turbogenerators Primary source of energy

  9. Electrical power production • Hydroturbogenerator

  10. Fluctuation on demand • The base load represents the constant supply of power • As demand rises during the day, additional plants can be turned on and off • A deficiency in available power will prompt a brownout or blackout

  11. Matching sources to uses

  12. 2. Exploiting crude oil

  13. How are fossil fuels formed? • Anaerobic conditions • Accumulation of sediment • Exposure to pressure and heat

  14. How are supplies estimated?

  15. Production • Primary recovery: 25% • Secondary and tertiary recovery: 50% to 60% • Involves manipulating pressure in the oil reservoir by injecting brine, steam or other substances. • Economics determine the extent to which reserves are exploited • An increase in the price makes more reserves available

  16. 3. Oil, the most important fossil fuel in American Economy?

  17. Declining U.S. Reserves and Increasing Importation • M. King Hubbert • Proposed that oil exploitation would follow a bell-shaped curve • Predicted that U.S. production would peak between 1965 and 1970 • The Oil Crisis of the 1970s • Low prices on the Middle Eastern countries = increasing dependence • OPEC formed a cartel and agreed to restrain production to get higher prices • OPEC embargo to countries that gave support to Israel

  18. U.S. adjustment to higher prices • Increase domestic production of crude oil • Exploratory drilling • Alaska pipeline • Fiedls were reopened • Decrease consumption • Standards for automobile fuel efficiency • Insulation in buildings and appliances efficiency • Development of alternative energy sources was begun • To protect against other OPEC boycott • Strategic oil reserve was created

  19. The recovery • Consumption declined • Production increased • OPEC was unable to restrain its own production. • Victims of success • Exploration in the US • Conservation efforts • Tax incentives and other subsidies • The need for conservation and development of alternative ways of transportation.

  20. Problems of growing U.S. dependency on foreign oil • Costs of Purchase • The price paid at the pump is the same whether the oil is produced here or abroad. • Risk of Supply Disruptions • The Middle East is politically unstable • Terrorism • Military cost of oil • Resource Limitations • Diminished domestic reserves

  21. Ways to become independent

  22. 4. Other fossil fuels

  23. Natural Gas • Substantial reserves • Most is used for space heating and cooking • Increasingly employed to generate electrical power. • Limitations: • Environmental cost of pipelines • Can be explosive • Benefit: • Produces virtually no hydrocarbons or sulfur oxides (carbon dioxide and water) • Alternative uses: • Gas-run cars • Synthetic oil

  24. Coal • Large reserves (about 250 billion tons) • 51% of electricity comes from coal fired power plants. • Obtained by surface mining or underground mining • Limitations: • Mining can be hazardous • Substantial environmental impacts • Fires • CO2 emissions • Strip mining destroys the ecology of the region • Alternative uses • Clean coal technology program • Synfuels: liquid or gas fuels from coal

  25. Oil shales and oil sands Oil shale Oil sand • A fine sedimentary rock containing a mixture of solid, wax-like hydrocarbons called kerogen. • Can be refined into gasoline and other petroleum products • Very little productivity makes it expensive • Extraction involves substantial environmental impacts • Sedimentary material containing bitumen, an extremely viscous tarlike hydrocarbon. • Can be refined • Cost competitive compared to today’s oils prices. • Extraction involves substantial environmental impacts

  26. 5. Fossil fuels and energy security

  27. The Union of Concerned Scientists report:

  28. Security threats

  29. Energy supply-side policies

  30. Energy demand-side policies

  31. CHPs

  32. Energy demand-side policies

  33. Development of non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  34. Sources: • http://electron9.phys.utk.edu/phys136d/modules/m8/devices.htm • http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/cooling-tower.html • http://www.businessinsider.com/exxon-doubling-down-on-natural-gas-2010-3 • http://www.metrolic.com/nuclear-energy-feared-coal-energy-ignored-167961/ • http://apesnature.homestead.com/lectures.html