Fossil Fuels: • A Non-Renewable resource that forms from the remains of plants and animals that lived long • Ago • -A Non-Renewable energy source is one that CANNOT be replaced or is replaced over a • very long natural process • When fossil fuels are burned they produce HEAT that is used to produce electrical energy • Gaseous Fossil Fuels: • Natural Gas • -Gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons • (hydrogen and carbon) • -Mainly used for heating: stoves; • some motor vehicles • -When burned; creates less pollution • than petroleum and is less flammable • -Gas leaks are common; may lead to • illness or death • -Methane (CH4) main component • -Butane and Propane may also be • separated • Liquid Fossil Fuels: • Petroleum • -Liquid mixture of hydrocarbons • (hydrogen and carbon) • -Commonly known as crude • oil (black gold) • -Separated into various • products in refineries • -Gasoline, jet fuel; • kerosene; diesel; fuel oil • -More than 40% of world’s • energy comes from petroleum • Solid Fossil Fuels: • Coal • -Forms underground from partially • decomposed plant material • -Coal was used as major energy source • in US and in locomotives until cleaner • energy solutions became available • -Still used to turn the turbine engines • in power plants to generate electricity
Coal Formation-Stages 1-4 • Stage 1: Formation of Peat • Sunken swamp plants that have not decayed completely change into peat; about 60% is carbon • Stage 2: Formation of Lignite • If peat is buried by sediment; pressure and temperature increase. It then slowly changes into a type of coal known as lignite which contains about 70% carbon • Stage 3: Formation of Bituminous Coal • If more sediment is added, heat and pressure increase to force more water and gas out of the lignite. It then changes to bituminous coal which contains 80% carbon • Stage 4: Formation of Anthracite • If sediment accumulates; the heat and pressure continue to increase. Bituminous coal changes to anthracite which is the hardest type of coal and contains 90% carbon.