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Egyptian Timeline

Egyptian Timeline

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Egyptian Timeline

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  1. Egyptian Timeline • Old Kingdom (2700-2150) • Middle Kingdom (2040-1786) • New Kingdom (1570-1075)

  2. Old Kingdom • Theocracy • Menes united Egypt • Came to an end with a Civil War • Hieroglyphics developed • Religion developed • Pyramids and Sphinx built

  3. Middle Kingdom • Extension of Egyptian control into Nubia • Arts developed • Theocracy type government • Invaded by the Hyksos (invaders on horse)

  4. New Kingdom • Militaristic • Hebrews enslaved • Mummification perfected • Social and religious changes • Pharaoh had absolute power • Invasions prevention used all money in treasury

  5. I. Desert • Surrounded by desert with occasional oasis • Permits some trade • Defense from invasion • Contributes to feeling of safety • preserves artifacts 1 2 3 4 5 6

  6. “Egypt is the gift of the Nile” -Herodotus 1 2 3 4 5 6

  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  8. I. The Nile • yearly flooding - no concern for soil depletion • Predictable • Irrigation systems • Encourages • Trade/protection/food • Communication • Political unity • 4160 Miles long-empties in the Mediterranean Sea 1 2 3 4 5 6

  9. I. The Nile 1 2 3 4 5 6

  10. I. The Nile 1 2 3 4 5 6

  11. I. The Nile

  12. I. The Nile • Impact on religion • divided life - living and dying. • East (sunrise) is land of the living - cities, temples • West (sunset) is land of the dead – tombs • Burials are completed this way ***** How do we bury people today? 1 2 3 4 5 6

  13. II. Religion • Omnipresence of religion • Polytheistic • interaction with the natural environment shows interrelated gods and goddesses yearly rebirth of Nile and daily rebirth of sun • over 2000 gods • Pharaoh as living god • Most important god was Amon-re or RA- the creator or sun god • Afterlife • Evolution of who has an afterlife • Old vs. New Kingdom 1 2 3 4 5 6

  14. II. Osiris • God of the Dead - “rebirth” - and the weighing of the heart against a sacred feather =eternal happiness or death • Evolution of Egyptian mythology • known as a ruler in the Nile delta - • a local god • regional god. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  15. II. Horus • Horus, god of balance and harmony • maintained the natural order: the flow of the Nile and the fertility of the soil. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  16. Isis • Wife and sister of Osiris and mother of Horus • Protector of children

  17. Anubis • God of the dead • Supervises the embalming process • He shows the dead the way to the underworld • Weighted the souls of the dead to determine their fate in the afterlife

  18. Anubis

  19. Ra and Amon-Ra • During the New Kingdom the two gods were merged into one main god. Amon-Ra

  20. II. Early Pyramids Zozer’s stepped pyramid - similar to Babylonian ziggurats 1 2 3 4 5 6

  21. Why build Pyramids? • Belief in the afterlife demanded: • Bodies be interred whole • Material goods for use in afterlife be present • The need to protect the bodies demands good burial tombs • First were mastabas • Then pyramids • Then later… hidden tombs

  22. II. Great Pyramid • Tomb for Khufu • an almost perfect square (deviation .05%) • Orientation is exactly North, South, East West • 2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high • 20 years to build • Average block weighs 2.5 tons • Some weigh 9 tons! 1 2 3 4 5 6

  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  24. Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu Queen Pyramids in front 1 2 3 4 5 6

  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  26. II. Mummies • Not known when it started in Egypt • Perfected by time of New Kingdom • How to make a mummy: 70 steps • 1) Removal of the brain through the nostrils 2) Removal of the intestines through an incision in the side 3) Sterilization of the body and intestines 4) Treating, cleaning, dehydrating the intestines 5) Packing the body with natron (a natural dehydrating agent) and leaving for 40 days 6) Removal of the natron agent 7) Packing the limbs with clay or sand 8) Packing the body with linen (soaked in resin), myrrh and cinnamon 9) Treating the body with ointments and finally wrapping with a fine linen gauze, not less than 1000 square yards . 1 2 3 4 5 6

  27. Mummies

  28. Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver which were also treated 1 2 3 4 5 6

  29. Mummy Inner coffin 1 2 3 4 5 6

  30. Second inner coffin Second inner coffin lid 1 2 3 4 5 6

  31. Funerary Gifts Gift bearers Shawabti box Model boat 1 2 3 4 5 6

  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  33. III. The Pharaoh “The Great House” • God-King - • Temporal power • owns all the land and people and what people posses • law vs. Pharaoh's will • irrigation • no city walls • Had absolute power 1 2 3 4 5 6

  34. III. The Pharaoh • God-King - • Religious • direct descendant of the Sun god • controls access to the afterlife • July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by the Pharaoh • 365 day calendar. 1 2 3 4 5 6

  35. Menes

  36. Amenhotep III

  37. Ramses II

  38. King Tut

  39. Hatshepsut

  40. Nefertiti

  41. Cleopatra VII

  42. IV. Daily Life in Egypt • Cosmetics, cleanliness (bathe 3 times a day), shaved bodies, wigs • main food is beer and bread • Grow many crops: emmer, barley, flax, lentils, onion, beans, and millet • common building made of sun-dried mud bricks - up to three stories in height • Four social classes - slaves on the bottom • Most common job … farming 1 2 3 4 5 6

  43. Women • Could improve her status through marriage • Women had many legal rights such as property ownership

  44. Achievements • Lunar Calendar/365 day year/12 months • Number system based on 10 • Used fractions and geometry

  45. Farms • Pharaoh owned ALL land • Peasants kept part of crops for themselves • Land was divided into large estates • Grew mostly wheat, barley, flax and cotton

  46. IV. Farmers in Egypt 1 2 3 4 5 6

  47. IV. Hieroglyphics • Language is written without vowels • Pictographs were usually written on walls, slates or papyrus 1 2 3 4 5 6

  48. IV. Hieroglyphics • Use in temples • Rosetta Stone • Used for translations • 1798 • Demotic, Greek and • Hieroglyphics 1 2 3 4 5 6

  49. IV. Egyptian Artwork Stela (carved stone) Egyptian Farmers & animals Notice, all people drawn from the side – even when looking right at you! 1 2 3 4 5 6

  50. Old Kingdom2680 BC-2180 BCMenes united Upper and Lower Egypt2 classes- Peasants and farmers-Pharoah, scribes and government officialsEnded with Civil Wars