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Bhutan PowerPoint Presentation

Bhutan

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Bhutan

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  1. Bhutan Country profile of society, economics, and the government.

  2. Introduction • Shares a history of influence by Tibet, China, India, and an interlude of British colonial guidance. • Ruled by hereditary monarchs. • Legal system based on Buddhist law and English common law • Kingdom for more than 1500 years • Autocracy has been replaced by democracy

  3. Country Profile • Formal name - Kingdom of Bhutan • Citizens - Bhutanese • Capital - Thimpu • Date of Independence - August 8, 1949

  4. Geography • Landlocked between China and Tibet • Total land area of 46,500 square km. • Topography is rugged mountains with foothills and unnavigable rivers • Climate varies: year round snow to north, monsoons in west, temperate in central and eastern areas, subtropical in south

  5. Society • Population is 1.6 million with 97% in rural areas • Religion is 70% Buddhist, 25% Hindus, and 5% Muslim • Literacy rate at 12% • As of 1980’s, life expectancy at 45.9 for men and women

  6. Economy • Predominantly agricultural with a fair amount of tourism • GNP is 3.9 Billion, agricultural is 46.2% • Industry is 26.4% of GNP • Foreign trade principally with India • Foreign Aid is chiefly from India with smaller amounts from U.N. and private sources

  7. Government and politics • World’s only Buddhist kingdom • Defacto constitutional monarchy • Unicameral national assembly , some members appointed by monarch and public representatives elected every three years • No legal political parties • Central government with country divided into four administrative zones

  8. Civil law system influenced by Buddhist law based on 17th century code • Minor civil disputes handled by village heads • Government-owned newspaper and television, No foreign television reception

  9. National Security • Armed forces - Royal Bhutan Army at 6000 • Modern small arms and obsolete Indian supplied equipment • Military budget unknown • India is protector, weapons supplier, and provider of advanced training • Village, Royal, and Forest police along with modern militia

  10. Chronology of Important Events • 500 B.C. to 600 A.D. - State of Monyul Established • 630-640 - First Buddhist temple built • 910 - Independent monarchies develop • 1100’s- occupied by Tibetan-Mongul forces • 1629 - First westerners visit (Portuguese) • 1629-47 - Wars with Tibet

  11. 1651 - Theocratic Buddhist state rules unify Bhutan and joint civil-religious administration established • 1714 - Tibetan-Mongol invasion thwarted • 1772-73 - Britain invades • 1774 - sign peace treaty with Britain • 1834-35 - Britain again invades • 1864 - Civil war, Britain seeks peace with both sides • 1865 - War with Britain

  12. 1883-85 - Civil war leads to united Bhutan • 1907 - Theocracy ends - hereditary monarch • 1910 - Invaded by China, Britain defends controlling Bhutan • 1947 - British rule ended • 1949 - Treaty of Friendship with India • 1953 - National assembly established as part of government reform • 1966 - Thimpu made year-round capital • 1971 - Admitted as united nations

  13. 1989 - Ethnic clashes • 1990 - Anti government terrorist clash with Royal Bhutan Army, violence and crime increase, citizen militias formed