Life of Christ The Four Gospels © John Stevenson, 2011
Matthew The Gospel of the King
The Gospel According to Matthew • The Author: Matthew / Levi • Writes to the Jews • A Jewish Genealogy through David to Abraham • A focus on the Kingdom of Heaven • Describes the bribery of the guards • Mention is made of a number of Gentiles • Women in the Genealogy • Herod the Great & the Magi • Canaanite woman (15:22-28). • Two Centurions (8:5-10 & 27:54).
Jesus as the King • The Genealogy of the King • Contrast with Herod the Great • Forerunner of the King • Power of the King • Over the natural world • Over the supernatural world • The Identity of the King • The Triumphal Entry of the King
Call of Disciples / Sermon on the Mount • Miracles / Demands of Discipleship • Unpardonable Sin / Parables of the Kingdom • Great Confession & Transfiguration / Forgiveness • Road to Jerusalem / Olivet Discourse • Last Supper, Gethsemane, & Arrest of Jesus • Trials & Crucifixion of Jesus • Resurrection of Jesus & the Great Commission • Genealogy • Birth Narrative • Assassination Attempt by false king • Forerunner & Baptism of the King • Temptation Note the Corollaries Between the Beginning and Ending of the book
Key Words & Phrases • Kingdom of Heaven • Parables of the Kingdom (chapter 13). • Keys to the Kingdom (16:19). • See the Son of man coming in His kingdom (16:28). • Authority • Teaches as one having authority (7:29). • Centurion: “I am also a man under authority” (8:9). • Chief Priests: “Who gave you this authority?” (21:23). • All authority given to Jesus (28:18).
Key Words & Phrases • Fruit • John the Baptist: Trees that do not produce fruit will be cut down (3:10). • Jesus: Good trees produce good fruit; bad trees produce bad fruit (7:17-19). • A tree is known by its fruit (12:33). • The fig tree is cursed because of a lack of fruit (21:19). • The Kingdom to be given to a nation producing the fruit of it (21:43).
Mark The Son who Came to Serve
The Gospel According to Mark • The Author: John Mark • Writes to the Gentiles • No Genealogy • Only a single quote from the Old Testament • Shortest of the four Gospels. • Short, vivid details. • Jesus loved the rich, young ruler • At the feeding of the five thousand, Jesus had the people sit in groups of 100’s and 50’s. • Unnamed man clothed in linen. • Names the sons of Simon of Cyrene.
Matthew Mark • Associated with the apostles Peter and Paul • An eye witness of the life and ministry of Jesus • Writes to Jews • Writes to Gentiles • Jesus presented as a King • Jesus presented as a Servant • Focus on the sermons of Jesus • Focus on the miracles of Jesus
Jesus as the Servant • A Servant needs no Genealogy or Birth Narrative • Narrative begins with the ministry of Jesus • Only two sermons of Jesus are given • Parables of the Kingdom (Chapter 4) • Olivet Discourse (Chapter 13)
Outline of Mark Rising Action Falling Action What did He come to Accomplish? Who is Jesus?
Key Words & Phrases • Immediately • And… • A regular use of the Historic Present
Mark 10:42-45 42 And calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, “You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. 43 “But it is not so among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; 44 and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. 45 “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”
The Gospel According to Luke The Master Teacher
The Gospel According to Luke • The Author: Luke • Writes to Theophilus (Greek) • Genealogy goes back to Adam • Birth and Childhood narratives • Longest and most personal Parables. • Good Samaritan • Rich man & Lazarus • Prodigal Son • Unjust Steward
Outline of Luke Begins In the Temple Concludes In the Temple
Observations from Luke • Luke is a Historian • His historical notations include mention of the various Caesars and the local governors • He seeks to relate an “accurate account” • The Temple is a Geographical Focus • Infant and child narratives take place in the temple • Jesus sets his face to go to Jerusalem • Resurrection appearances are all in or around Jerusalem
Observations from Luke • Tabletalks of Jesus • Nineteen meals are mentioned in Luke • Thirteen of these are unique to Luke’s Gospel • Emphasis on the Poor & the Oppressed • Mary sings of how God has filled the hungry and sent away the rich empty-handed (1:53) • Jesus came to set free the downtrodden (4:18-21) • Woe to the rich (6:24) • Parable of the Rich Fool (12:16-21) • Parable of the Rich Man & Lazarus (16:19-31)
Luke & the Samaritans • Disciples and the Samaritans (9:51-56) • Parable of the Good Samaritan (10:29-37) • Healing of the ten lepers (17:11-19) Galilee Samaria Judea
Luke & Women • Luke views the birth of Jesus from Mary’s perspective • Luke describes the raising of the widow’s son (7:11-17) • Jesus anointed by a sinful woman (7:36-50) • Luke mentions that the ministry of Jesus was supported by women (8:1-3) • Mary & Martha (10:38-42) • Jesus speaks to “daughters of Jerusalem” (23:27-29) • Women at the empty tomb (24:1-10)
Outline of Luke Preparation & Birth Death & Preparation
Luke Matthew Mark Associated with the apostles Peter and Paul An eye witness of the life and ministry of Jesus Writes to Jews Writes to Gentiles Jesus presented as a King Jesus presented as a Servant Jesus presented as a Teacher Focus on the sermons of Jesus Focus on the miracles of Jesus Focus on the teachings & parables of Jesus
The Gospel According to John The Son of God
The Gospel According to John • The Author: John • He does not mention himself by name. • Instead, he refers to himself as “the disciple whom Jesus loved.” • Begins with a reference to the Word ─ the eternal Logos • He was • He was with God • He was God • The Word became flesh • John gives no Birth or Childhood narratives
Seven Signs 2:1-11 4:46-54 5:1-18 6:1-14 6:16-21 9:1-41 11:1-44 Son healed Lame man at Pool Feeds 5,000 Walks on Water Blind man sees Lazarus raised Water to wine We are meant to see these signs through the eyes of the disciples. They are said to be growing in their belief as they see the signs and we are meant to grow with them.
The Calendar of Dionysius • Pope John I: 525 A.D. • Means that were already in use • Founding of the city of Rome • Reign of Diocletian
The Death of Herod 40 B.C. - King of the Jews by Rome 37 B.C. - Regains Palestine 4 B.C. - Death Josephus mentions lunar eclipse prior to Herod’s death
Luke 2:1-2 Now in those days a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a census be taken of all the inhabited earth. 2 This was the first census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria.
The Census of Augustus • Gaius Octavius Augustus • “I found Rome brick and left her marble” • Pax Romana
Problems with the Census • Quirinius was governor of Syria in 6-7 A.D. • No earlier recorded census • No known census while Quirinius was governor
Proposed Solutions • It has been suggested that the passage can be translated to read: This census was taken before Quirinius was governor of Syria. • Another proposed translation reads: This census was before that while Quirinius was governor of Syria. • The term that Luke uses is a general one. He says that this was the first census taken while Quirinius was GOVERNING Syria
Lapis Tiburtinus • Tombstone • Records achievements of an unknown governor • Served as pro praetor of Syria twice • No record of any governor of Syria having served twice • Quirinius commanded legions in Syria after 12 B.C.
Luke 2:4-5 Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David, 5 in order to register along with Mary, who was engaged to him, and was with child.
Luke 2:6-7 While they were there, the days were completed for her to give birth. 7 And she gave birth to her firstborn son; and she wrapped Him in cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.
In the same region there were some shepherds staying out in the fields and keeping watch over their flock by night. (Luke 2:8)
Luke 2:9 And an angel of the Lord suddenly stood before them, and the glory of the Lord shone around them; and they were terribly frightened.
Luke 2:10-11 But the angel said to them, “Do not be afraid; for behold, I bring you good news of great joy which will be for all the people; 11 for today in the city of David there has been born for you a Savior, who is Christ the Lord.”