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Islam in the West after Post-9/11: Radicalization or Integration?

Islam in the West after Post-9/11: Radicalization or Integration?

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Islam in the West after Post-9/11: Radicalization or Integration?

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  1. Islam in the West after Post-9/11: Radicalization or Integration? Professor Jocelyne Cesari CGIS South 1737 Cambridge Street Room 020 Monday 5:30-7:30 (Fall 2010)

  2. Islam as a Threat? Protesters assemble near Ground Zero in protest of a major Islamic Center planned to be built 600 feet from the site. Sign reads: “A mosque at ground zero spits on the graves of 9/11 victims. Stand up America!” Source: Google Images, www.boston.com/bostonglobe Right-wing conservative poster campaign supporting the Swiss minaret ban in 2009. The ban illustrates the growing Islamophobia in Europe. Source: www.muslimmatters.org

  3. Islam as a Threat? • When did Islam stop to be a Religion? • Cultural Talk (Mamdani) Protesters in NYC supporting the mosque that is planned to be built near ground zero. Source: www.msnbc.com Poster campaign against the minaret ban in Switzerland in 2009. It features major Christian monuments without their key parts to show what mosques would be without minarets. Reads:“Stop the Madness, Vote NO” Source: www.libertereligieuse.ch, www.printmag.com

  4. Islam in Western Democracies Key Issues: • Immigration • Ethnicity • Race • Religion • Class

  5. Immigration, Race, Ethnicity, Class and Religion • Muslims have an immigrant origin

  6. There is No Systematic Overlap in the U.S. Between Immigration and Muslim • Only 1.2 million of the 15.5 million immigrants entering the U.S. between 1989 and 2004 came from predominantly Muslim countries • Legal immigration from predominantly Muslim countries dropped sharply after 2002 (from more than 100,000 per year to approximately 60,000 in 2003) before recovering a bit to 90,000 in 2004 • Immigration and issues of Islam and terrorism are not systematically correlated in the U.S. as they are in Europe

  7. Immigration, Race, Ethnicity, Class and Religion • Muslims are the under class of Europe -The socio-economic condition of European Muslims is one of great fragility: Muslim unemployment rates consistently run higher than national averages: 31% and 24% for Moroccans and Turks respectively in the Netherlands. -This socio-economic marginality is often accompanied by residential segregation -A collusion occurs between ethnicity, religion, and poverty.

  8. American Muslim Elite • According to the Zogby Institute Poll, over half of American Muslims early at least $50,000 per year compared to a national average income of $43,000 • The U.S. census reports that 58% of American Muslims are college graduates compared to only 27% of the general population

  9. Immigration, Race, Ethnicity, Class and Religion • In each European country they belong to one dominant ethnic group

  10. From Colonial to Postcolonial Migration • From WWII to 1974 • From 1979 to 2001

  11. Race, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism • Political representation Sadiq Khan (born 1970) UK Rachida Dati (born 1965) France Cez Ozdemir (born 1965) Germany

  12. Race, Ethnicity and Multiculturalism • Anti Discrimination laws In Britain: 1965 Race Relations Act 1976 Race Relations Act 2006 Racial and Religious Hatred Act

  13. Islam vs Secularism • Religious freedom (Hijab)

  14. Islam vs Secularism • Religious conviction (Cartoons crisis) London, UK Dusseldorf, Germany

  15. Islam vs Secularism • Shari’a debate The Shari’a Council of Britain Lord Chief Justice, Lord Phillips (born 1938) Archbishop Rowan Williams (born 1950)

  16. Course Requirements • Each Student is Expected to: • Read materials before each class and participate actively in the discussion during class. Required readings are accessible on the course website.* • Write two short essays (due October 25 and November 29) on topics and readings covered in previous classes • Write a final paper (15-20 pages) on the topic of his/her choice (due December 20) • Grading: • 20% Class Participiation/Attendance • 35% Short Essays • 45% Final Paper *See Syllabus for list of required readings